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CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




the 
Fundamentals 



A Testimony 



Volume XI 



Compliments of 
Two Christian Laymen 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tliis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924098504685 



The Fundamentals 

A Testimony to the Truth 



Volume XI 



Compliments of 
Two Christian Laymen 



Testimony Publishing Company 

(Not Inc.) 

808 North La Salle Street 

Chicago, III., U.S. A. 



v.lj 



"To the Law and to the Testimony" 

Isaiah 8:20 



^•53G^77 



FOREWORD 

There has been much unavoidable delay in connection with 
the issue of this volume of "The Fundamentals," Volume 
XI. This was occasioned by the very serious illness of the 
former Executive Secretary of "The Fundamentals" Com- 
mittee. This illness lasted for many months, only terminat- 
ing in his death. He bore up very bravely and it was not 
thought wise to put the work in other hands lest he should be 
discouraged, feeling that there was no hope. Further delay 
was occasioned by the necessity of going over his manuscripts 
and papers and selecting such as had already been passed upon 
by the Committee for Volume XI and in passing upon other 
manuscripts in his possession. 

We have been greatly cheered by the letters that have come 
to us from all parts of the world, from ministers, mission- 
aries, editors, college presidents, Sunday School superintend- 
ents and others, speaking of the great personal blessing which 
they have received from "The Fundamentals," and of the 
good accomplished by the various volumes in the lives of others 
to whom they have been passed on. 

The present volume will go to about one hundred thousand 
English-speaking Protestant pastors, evangelists, missionaries, 
theological professors, theological students, Y. M. C. A. sec- 
retaries, Y. W. C. A. secretaries, Sunday School superintend- 
ents, religious editors, and lay workers throughout the earth. 
May we ask the prayers of every reader that it may be abun- 
dantly blessed, as its predecessors have been, unto the strength- 
ening of the faith of Christians, unto the defense of the truth 
against the various forms of error so prevalent at the present 
day, and unto the conversion of a multitude of the unsaved. 

There is a large circle of prayer formed of men and women 
in all parts of the earth who know God and who are upholding 



before Him the work of "The Fundamentals" and of the 
Committee to which the Two Christian Laymen have entrusted 
the editing and publishing of these volumes. We earnestly 
request other men and women who know God to join this circle 
of prayer in order that in answer to believing and united prayer 
the truth may have new power and that a world-wide revival 
of religion may be begun and grow. 

It was the original plan of the Two Laymen who gave the 
money for this work that there should be twelve volumes of 
"The Fundamentals" issued: so there remains but one vol- 
ume to be issued. Prayer is desired that wisdom may be given 
to the Committee in the selection of the material for the final 
volume. A wide desire is manifested that "The Fundamen- 
tals" be continued in some way after the issue of the twelve 
volumes. Probably essentially the same work will be continued 
in some form, but that form has not yet been decided upon. 

All editorial correspondence should be addressed to the 
Executive Secretary of The Fundamentals, 1945 La France 
Avenue, South Pasadena, California. There is no desire, how- 
ever, for the submission of manuscripts by anybody unless 
specific request for such manuscript is made. We can use but 
few more manuscripts, and some are already in hand. 

All business correspondence should be addressed to the 
Testimony Publishing Company, 808 North La Salle Street, 
Chicago, Illinois, U. S. A. 

(See Publishers' Notice, Page 127.) 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

I. The Biblical Conception of Sin 7 

By Rev. Thomas Whitelaw, M. A., D. D., 
Kilmarnock, Ayrshire, Scotland. 

II. At-One-Ment by Propitiation 23 

By Dyson Hague, 

Vicar of the Church of the Epiphany, 

Toronto, Oritario, Canada. 

III. The Grace of God 43 

By Rev. C. I. Scofield, D. D., 
Editor "Scofield Reference Bible." 

IV. Fulfilled Prophecy a Potent Argument for 

the Bible 55 

By Arno C. Gaebelein, 
Editor "Our Hope," New York City. 

V. The Coming of Christ 87 

By Prof. Charles R. Erdman, D. D., 

Princeton Theological Seminary, 

Princeton, New Jersey. 

VI. Is Romanism Christianity ? 100 

By T. W. Medhurst, 
Glasgow, Scotland. 

VII. Rome, the Antagonist of the Nation 113 

By Rev. J. M. Foster, 
Boston, Massachusetts. 



THE FUNDAMENTALS 

VOLUME XI 



CHAPTER I 

THE BIBLICAL CONCEPTION OF SIN 

BY REV. THOMAS WHITELAW, M. A., D. D., 
KILMARNOCK, AYRSHIRE, SCOTLAND 

Holy Scripture undertakes no demonstration of the reality 
of sin. In all its statements concerning sin, sin is presupposed 
as a fact which can neither be controverted nor denied, 
neither challenged nor obscured. It is true that some reasoners, 
through false philosophy and materialistic science, refuse to 
admit the existence of sin, but their endeavors to explain it 
away by their respective theories is sufficient proof that sin 
is no figment of the imagination but a solid reality. Others 
who are not thinkers may sink so far beneath the power of 
sin as to lose all sense of its actuality, their moral and spiritual 
natures becoming so hardened and fossilized as to be "past 
feeling," in which case conviction of sin is no more possible, 
or at least so deteriorated and unimpressible that only a tre- 
mendous upheaval within their souls, occasioned perhaps by 
severe affliction, but brought about by the inward operation 
of the Spirit of God, will break up the hard crust of moral 
numbness and religious torpor in which their spirits are en- 
cased. A third class of persons, by simply declining to think 
about sin, may come in course of time to conclude that whether 
sin be a reality or not, it does not stand in any relation to 
them and does not concern them — in which case once more 
they are merely deceiving themselves. The truth is that it 

7 



8 The Fundamentals 

is extremely doubtful whether any intelligent person whose 
moral intuitions have not been completely destroyed and whose 
mental perceptions have not been largely blunted by indulg- 
ence in wickedness, can successfully persuade himself, at least 
permanently, that sin is a myth, an illusion of the mind, a 
creature of the imagination, and not a grim reality. Most 
men know that sin is in themselves a fact of consciousness they 
cannot deny, and in others a fact of observation they cannot 
overlook. As Chesterton expresses it, the fact of sin any one 
may see in the street: the Bible assumes that any man will 
discover it who looks into his own heart. 

Accordingly the Bible devotes its efforts to imparting to 
mankind reliable knowledge about the nature and universality, 
the origin and culpability, but also and especially about the 
removableness of sin ; and to set forth these in succession will 
be the object of the present paper. 

I. THE NATURE OF SIN 

It scarcely requires stating that modern ideas about sin 
receive no countenance from Scripture, which never speaks 
about sin as "good in the making," as "the shadow cast by 
man's immaturity," as "a necessity determined by heredity 
and environment," as "a stage in the upward development of 
a finite being," as a "taint adhering to man's corporeal frame," 
as a "physical disease," "a mental infirmity," "a constitutional 
weakness," and least of all "as a figment of the imperfectly 
enlightened, or theologically perverted, imagination," but always 
as the free act of an intelligent, moral and responsible being 
asserting himself against the will of his Maker, the supreme 
Ruler of the universe. That will the Bible takes for granted 
every person may learn, either from the law written on his 
own heart (Rom. 1:15); or from the revelation furnished 
by God to mankind, first to the Hebrew Church in the Old 
Testament Scriptures, and afterwards to the Christian Church 
and through it to the whole world in the New Testament 



The Biblical Conception of Sin 9 

Gospels and Epistles. Hence, sin is usually described in the 
Sacred Volume by terms that indicate with perfect clearness 
its relation to the Divine will or law, and leaves no uncertainty 
as to its essential character. 

In the Old Testament (Ex. 34:5, 6; Psa. 32: 1, 2) three 
words are used to supply a full definition of sin. (1) "Trans- 
gression" (pesha'h) or a falling away from God and therefore 
a violation of His commandments; with which exposition 
John agrees when he says that "sin is a transgression of the 
law" (1 John 3:4), and Paul when he writes (Rom. 4: 15), 
"Where no law is, there is no transgression." (2) "Sin" 
(chataah) or a missing of the mark, a coming short of one's 
duty, a failure to do what one ought, for which reason the term 
is fittingly applied to sins of omission; with which again John 
agrees when he states ( 1 John 5 : 17) that "all unrighteousness 
[or defect in righteousness] is sin," or Paul when he affirms 
(Rom. 3 : 23) , that "all have sinned and come short of the glory 
of God," and Christ when He charges the Scribes and Pharisees 
with "leaving undone the things they ought to have done" 
(Matt. 23 : 23 ; Luke 11 : 42). (3) "Iniquity" ('avon) or a turn- 
ing aside from the straight path, curving like an arrow, hence 
perversity, depravity and inequality — a conception which finds 
an echo in the words of a later psalmist (78:5) who com- 
plained that Israel had "turned aside from Jehovah like a 
deceitful bow," and in those of the prophet Isaiah (53 : 6) who 
confessed that "all we like sheep have gone astray, and have 
turned every one unto his own way," and in those of his 
countryman Hosea (7:16) who lamented that Israel "like a 
deceitful bow had returned, but not to the Most High." The 
words employed in the New Testament to designate sin are 
not much, if at all, different in meaning — hamartia, a failure, 
fall^a false step, a blunder ; and anomia, or lawlessness. Hence 
the Biblical conception of sin may be fairly summed up in the 
words of the Westminster Confession: "Sin is any want of 
conformity unto or transgression of the law of God;" or in 



10 The Fundamentals 

those of Melancthon : "Pecatum recte definitur 'avo/xia, seu 
discrepantia a lege Dei, h. e. def ectus naturae et actionum pug- 
nans cum lege Dei." 

II. THE UNIVERSALITY OF SIN 

According to the Bible, sin is not a quality or condition of 
soul that has revealed itself only in exceptional individuals 
like notorious offenders — prodigals, profligates, criminals, and 
vicious persons generally; or in exceptional circumstances, as 
for instance in the early ages of man's existence on the earth, 
or among half developed races, or in lands where the arts and 
sciences are unknovi^n, or in civilized communities where the 
local environment is prejudicial to morality ; but different from 
this sin is a quality or condition of soul which exists in every 
child of woman born, and not merely at isolated times but 
at all times, and at every stage of his career, though not always 
manifesting itself in the same forms of thought, feeling, word 
and action in every individual or even in the same individual. 
It has affected extensively the whole race of man in every 
age from the beginning of the world downward, in every land 
beneath the sun, in every race into which mankind has been 
divided, in every situation in which the individual has found 
himself placed; and intensively in every individual in every 
department and faculty of his nature, from the circumference 
to the center, or from the center to the circumference of his 
being. 

Scripture utters no uncertain sound on the world-embrac- 
ing character of moral corruption, saying in the pre-diluvian 
age of the world that "all flesh had corrupted its way upon 
the earth" (Gen. 6: 12) ; in David's generation, that all man- 
kind had "gone aside and become filthy," so that "there was 
none that did good, no, not one" (Psa. 14: 3) ; in Isaiah's time, 
that "all we like sheep had gone astray and turned every one 
to his own way" (53 : 6) ; in the opening of the Christian era, 
that "all had sinned and come short of the glory of God" (Rom. 



The Biblical Conception of Sin 11 

3:23) ; and generally Solomon's verdict holds goods of every 
day, "There is no man that sinneth not" (1 Kings 8:46), not 
even the best of men who have been born again by the Spirit 
and the incorruptible seed of the Word of God, renewed in 
their minds and created anew in Christ Jesus. Even of these 
one writer says : "If we say we have no sin, we deceive our- 
selves, and the truth is not in us" (1 John 1:8); while another 
counsels Christians to mortify the deeds of the body, and to 
put off the old man which is corrupt according to the deceit- 
ful lusts of the flesh (Rom. 7: 13; Col. 3: 5-10) ; and a third 
asserts that "in many things we all offend" (James 3:2). How 
true this is may be learned from the fact that Scripture 
mentions only one person in whom there was no sin, viz., 
Jesus of Nazareth, who not only challenged His contempo- 
raries (in particular His enemies) to convict Him of sin, but 
of whom those who knew Him most intimately (His disciples) 
testified that He "did no sin, neither was guile found in His 
mouth" (1 Pet. 2:22; 1 John 3:5). Of this exception of 
course the exclanation was and is that He was "God manifest 
in the flesh" (1 Tim. 3:16). But besides Him not a single 
person figures on the page of Holy Writ of whom it is said 
or indeed could have been said that he was sinless. Neither 
Enoch nor Noah in the ante-diluvian age; neither Abraham 
nor Isaac in patriarchal times; neither Moses nor Aaron in 
the years of the Israelitish wanderings; neither David nor 
Jonathan in the days of the undivided monarchy; neither Peter 
nor John, neither Barnabas nor Paul, in the Apostolic age, 
could have claimed such a distinction, and these were some 
of the best men that have ever appeared on this planet. 

Nor is it merely extensively that the reign of sin over the 
human family is universal, but intensively as well. It is not 
a rnalady which has affected only one part of man's complex 
constitution: every part thereof has felt its baleful influence. 
It has darkened his understanding and made him unable, with- 
out supernatural illumination, to apprehend and appreciate 



12 The Fundamentals 

spiritual things. "The natural man receiveth not the things 
of the Spirit of God, neither can he know them, because they 
are spiritually discerned" (1 Cor. 2:14); and again, "The 
Gentiles walk in the vanity of their minds, having the under- 
standing darkened, being alienated from the life of God through 
the ignorance that is in them, because of the blindness of their 
hearts" (Eph. 4: 17, 18). It defiles the heart, so that if left 
to itself, it becomes deceitful above all things and desperately 
wicked" (Jer. 17:9), so "full of evil" (Eccl. 9:3) and "only 
evil continually" (Gen. 6:5), that out of it proceed "evil 
thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications and such like" 
(Matt. IS: 19), thus proving it to be a veritable cage of un- 
clean birds. It paralyzes the will, if not wholly, at least par- 
tially, in every case, so that even regenerated souls have often 
to complain like Paul that when they would do good evil is 
present with them, that they are carnal sold under sin, that 
what they would they do not, and what they hate they do, 
that in their flesh, i. e., their sin-polluted natures, dwelleth no 
good thing, and that while to will is present with them, how to 
perform that which is good they know not (Rom. 7: 14-25). 
It dulls the conscience, that vicegerent of God in the soul, 
renders it less quick to detect the approach of evil, less prompt 
to sound a warning against it and sometimes so dead as to 
be past feeling about it (Eph. 4: 19). In short there is not 
a faculty of the soul that is not injured by it. "Sin when it 
is finished bringeth forth death" (James 1:5). 

III. THE ORIGIN OF SIN 

How a pure being, possessed of those intellectual capacities 
and moral intuitions which were needful to make him justly 
•-esponsible to Divine law, could and did lapse from his primi- 
tive innocence and fall into sin is one of those dark problems 
which philosophers and theologians have vainly endeavored 
to solve. No more reliable explanation of sin's entrance into 
the universe in general and into this world in particular has 



The Biblical Conception of Sin 13 

ever been given than that which is furnished by Scripture. 

According to Scripture sin first made its appearance in 
the angelic race, though nothing more is recorded than the 
simple fact that the angels sinned (2 Pet. 2 : 4) and kept not 
their first estate (or principality) but left their own (or 
proper) habitation (Jude 6), their motive or reason for doing 
so being passed over in silence. The obvious deduction is that 
the sin of these fallen spirits was a free act on their part, 
dictated by dissatisfaction with the place which had been as- 
signed to them in the hierarchy of heaven and by ambition to 
secure for themselves a loftier station than that in which they 
had been placed. Yet this does not answer the question how 
such dissatisfaction and ambition could arise in beings that 
must be presumed to have been created sinless. And inas- 
much as external influence in the shape of temptation from 
without, by intelligences other than themselves, is by the suppo- 
sition excluded, it does not appear that other answer is possible 
than that in the creation of a finite personality endowed with 
freedom of will, there is necessarily involved the possibility of 
making a wrong, in the sense of a sinful, choice. 

In the case of man, however, sin's entrance into the world 
receives a somewhat different explanation from the sacred 
writers. With one accord they ascribe the sinful actions, 
words, feelings and thoughts of each individual to his own 
deliberate free choice, so that he is thereby with perfect 
justice held responsible for his deviation from the path of 
moral rectitude; but some of the inspired penmen make it 
clear that the entrance of sin into this world was effected 
through the disobedience of the first man who stood and acted 
as the representative and surety of his whole natural posterity 
(Rom. 5 : 12), and that the first man's fall was brought about 
by temptation from without, by the seductive influence of 
Satan, the lord of the fallen spirits already mentioned, the 
prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh 
in the children of disobedience (Gen. 2:1-6; John 8 : 44 ; 2 Cor, 



14 The Fundamentals 

11:3; Eph. 2:2). Whatever view may be taken of the origin 
and authorship, literary form and documentary source of the 
Genesis story of the fall (on these points this paper does not 
enter) its teaching unmistakably is, to this effect : That the first 
man's lapse from a state of innocence entailed disastrous con- 
sequences upon himself and his descendants. Upon himself 
it wrought immediate disturbance of his whole nature (as 
already explained), implanting in it the seeds of degeneration, 
bodily, mental, moral and spiritual, filling him with fear of 
his Maker, laying upon his conscience a burden of guilt, dark- 
ening his perceptions of right and wrong, (as was seen in his 
unmanly attempt to excuse himself by blaming his wife,) and 
interrupting the hitherto peaceful relations which had sub- 
sisted between himself and the Author of his being. Upon 
his descendants it opened the floodgates of corruption by 
which their natures even from birth fell beneath the power 
of evil, as was soon witnessed in the dark tragedy of fratricide 
with which the tale of human history began, and in the rapid 
spread of violence through the pre-diluvian world. 

This is what theologians call the doctrine of "Original 
Sin," by which they mean that the results of Adam's sin, both 
legal and moral, have been transmitted to Adam's posterity, 
so that now each individual comes into the world, not like 
his first father, in a state of moral equilibrium — "born good," 
as Lord Palmerston of England used to say, or in the words 
of Pelagius — "born without virtue' and without vice, but capable 
of both" (capaces utriusque rei, non pleni nascimur, et sine 
virtute ita et sine vitio procreamur), but as the inheritor of a 
nature that has been disempowered by sin. 

That this doctrine, though frequently opposed, has a basis 
in science and philosophy, as well as in Scripture, is becoming 
every day more apparent. The scientific law of heredity by 
which not only physical but mental and moral characteristics 
are transmitted from parent to child seems to justify the 
Scripture statement, that "by one man's disobedience sin en- 



The Biblical Conception of Sin 15 

tered into the world and death by sin, and so death passed 
upon all men, because that all have sinned" (Rom. S : 12). The 
following words of the late Principal Fairbairn in his monu- 
mental work, "The Philosophy of Religion" (p. 165), go to 
support the Scriptural position: "Man is to God a whole, a 
colossal individual, whose days are centuries, whose organs 
are races, whose being as corporate endures immortal amid 
the immortality (mortality?) of its constituent units. . 
Hence there must be a Divine judgment of the race as a 
race, as well as of the individual as an individual." But in 
any case, whether confirmed or contradicted by modem 
thought, the doctrine of Scripture shines like a sunbeam, that 
man is "conceived in sin and shapen in iniquity" (Psa. 51 : 5), 
that children are "estranged from the womb and go astray" 
(Psa. 58: 3), that all are by nature "children of wrath" (Eph. 
2:3), that "the imagination of man's heart is evil from his 
youth" (Gen. 8:21), and that everyone requires to have "a 
new heart" created in him (Psa. 51 : 10), since "that which is 
bom of the flesh is flesh" (John 3:6), and "no man can 
bring a clean thing out of an unclean" (Job 15 : 14). If these 
passages do not show that the Bible teaches the doctrine of 
original, or transmitted and inherited, sin, it is difficult to 
see in what clearer or more emphatic language the doctrine 
could have been taught. The truth of the doctrine may be 
challenged by those who repudiate the authority of Scripture; 
that it is a doctrine of Scripture can hardly be denied. 

IV. THE CULPABILITY OF SIN 

By this is meant not merely the blameworthiness of sin 
as an act, inexcusable on the part of its perpetrator, who, 
being such a personality as he is, endowed with such faculties 
as are his, placed under a law so good and holy, just and 
spiritual, simple and easy as that prescribed by God, and having 
such motives and inducements to keep it as were offered to 
him — to the first man and also to his posterity, — ought never 



16 The Fundamentals 

to have committed it ; nor only the heinousness of it, as an act 
done against light and love bestowed upon the doer of it, 
and in flagrant opposition to the holiness and majesty of the 
Lawgiver so that He, the Lawgiver, cannot but regard it with 
abhorrence as an act abominable in His sight, and repel from 
His presence as well as extrude from His favor the individual 
who has become chargeable with it ; but over and above these 
representations of sin which are all Scriptural, by the culpa- 
bility of sin is intended its exposure to the penalty affixed by 
Divine justice to transgression. 

That a penalty was affixed by God in the first instance 
when man was created, the Eden narrative in Genesis declares : 
"The Lord God commanded the man, saying. Of every tree 
of the garden thou mayest freely eat, but of the tree of the 
knowledge of good and evil thou shalt not eat of it, for in 
the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die" (Gen. 2 : 16) ; 
and that this penalty still overhangs the impenitent is not 
only distinctly implied in our Saviour's language, that apart 
from His redeeming work the world, i. e., every individual 
therein, was in danger of perishing and was indeed already 
condemned (John 3 : 16-18) ; but it is expressly declared by 
John who says, that "the wrath of God abideth" on the unbe- 
liever (3:16), and by Paul who asserts that "the wages of 
sin is death" (Rom. 6:23). 

Without entering on the vexed question as to how far 
Adam's posterity are legally responsible for Adam's sin, in 
the sense that apart from their own transgressions they would 
be adjudged to spiritual and eternal death, it is manifest that 
Scripture includes in the just punishment of sin more than 
the death of the body. That this does form part of sin's 
penalty can hardly be disputed by a careful reader of the 
Bible ; but equally that that penalty includes what theologians 
call spiritual and eternal death, Scripture unmistakably im- 
plies. When it affirms that men are naturally "dead in 
trespasses and in sins," it obviously purposes to convey the 



The Biblical Conception of Sin 17 

idea that until the soul is quickened by Divine grace it is 
incapable, not of thinking upon the subject of religion, or 
reading the Word of God, or of praying, or of exercising 
faith, but of doing anything spiritually good or religiously 
saving, of securing their legal justification before a Holy God, 
or of bringing about their spiritual regeneration. When Scrip- 
ture further asserts that the unbeliever shall not see life (John 
3:36), and that the wicked shall go away into everlasting 
punishment (Matt. 25:46), it assuredly does not suggest that 
on entering the other world the unsaved on earth will have 
another opportunity of accepting salvation (Second Probation) , 
or that extinction of being will be their lot (Annihilation), or 
that all mankind will eventually attain salvation (Universal- 
ism). (On these three modern substitutes for the doctrine of 
future punishment see next section.) Meanwhile it suffices to 
observe that the words just quoted seem to teach that the 
penalty of sin continues beyond the grave. Granting that 
the words of Christ about the worm that never dies and the 
fire that shall not be quenched are figurative, they unquestion- 
ably signify that the figures stand for some terrible calamity, — 
on the one hand, loss of happiness, separation from the source 
of life, exclusion from blessedness, and, on the other, access 
of misery, suffering, wretchedness, woe, which will be realized 
by the wicked as the due reward of their impenitent and dis- 
obedient lives, and which no revolving years will relieve. The 
pendulum of the great clock of eternity, as it swings through 
the ages, will seem to be ever saying: "He that is unjust, let 
him be unjust still, and he that is filthy, let him be filthy 
still; he that is righteous, let him be righteous still, and he 
that is holy, let him be holy still." 

V. THE REMOVAL OF SIN 

Heinous and culpable as sin is, it is not left in Scripture 
for the contemplation of readers in all the nakedness of its 



18 The Fundamentals 

loathsome character in God's sight, and in all the heaviness 
of its guilt before the law, without hope of remedy for either; 
but in a cheering and comforting light it is set forth as an 
offence that may be forgiven and a defilement that will or 
may be ultimately cleansed. 

As for the pardonableness of sin, that indeed constitutes 
the pith and marrow of the "Good News" for the publication 
of which the Bible was written. From the first page in 
Genesis to the last in Revelation an undertone, swelling out 
as the end approaches into clear and joyous accents of love 
and mercy, proclaiming that the God of heaven, while Himself 
holy and just, of purer eyes than to behold iniquity, and 
unable to clear the guilty, is nevertheless merciful and gracious, 
long-suffering and slow to wrath, abundant in goodness and 
truth, keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity, trans- 
gression and sin (Ex. 34:6) ; announcing that He has made 
full provision for harmonizing the claims of mercy and justice 
in His own character by laying help upon One that is mighty, 
(Psa. 89: 19), even His only begotten and well-beloved Son, 
upon whom He had laid the iniquity of us all (Isa. 53:6), 
that He might once for all, as the Lamb of God, take away 
the sins of the world (John 1:29), intimating that the whole 
work necessary for enabling sinful men to be forgiven has 
been accomplished by Christ's death and resurrection, and 
that now God is in Him "reconciling the world unto Himself, 
not imputing unto men their trespasses" (2 Cor. 5: 19), invit- 
ing men everywhere to repent and be converted, that their sins 
may be blotted out (Acts 3 : 19) ; telling men that nothing 
more is required of them in order to be freely and fully justified 
from all their transgressions than faith in the propitiation of 
the cross (Rom. 3:25) ; and declaring that nothing will shut 
a sinner out from forgiveness except refusal to believe in the 
great redemption and accept the freely offered forgiveness — 
though that will, since it is written that he who believeth not 
on the Son of God "shall not see life" (John 3: 36). 



The Biblical Conception of Sin 19 

The ultimate removal of sin from the souls of the believing 
and pardoned is left by Scripture in no uncertainty. It was 
foretold in the name given to the Saviour at His birth : "Thou 
shalt call His name Jesus, because He shall save His people 
from ["out of," not "in"] their sins." It was implied in the 
object contemplated by His incarnation: "He was manifested 
to take away our sins." It is declared to have been the purpose 
of His death upon the cross : "He gave Himself for us, that 
He might redeem us from all iniquity and purify unto Himself 
a peculiar people zealous of good works." It is held up 
before the Christian as his final destiny "to be conformed to 
the image of His [God's] Son," to be presented "faultless 
before the presence of His glory with exceeding joy," and 
to be a dweller in the heavenly city "into which there can 
enter nothing that defileth." 

Whether sin will be ultimately extirpated if not from 
the universe, then from the family of man, is a different ques- 
tion, upon which the pronouncement of Scripture is thought 
by some to be less explicit. Its complete and permanent re- 
moval from the race is considered by certain interpreters to 
be taught in Scripture. That texts can be cited which seem 
to lend support to the theories of Annihilation, Second Pro- 
bation, and Universal Salvation need not be denied; but a 
close examination of the passages in question will show that 
the support derived from them is exceedingly precarious. 

That those who depart this life in impenitence and unbelief 
will be annihilated either at death or after the resurrection is 
deemed a legitimate deduction from the use of the word death 
as the punishment of sin. But as "applied to man death does 
not necessarily mean extinction of being." Bishop Butler long 
ago drew attention to the fact that various organs of the body 
might be removed without extinguishing the indwelling spirit, 
and argued that it was at least probable that the immaterial 
part of man would not be destroyed though the entire material 
frame were reduced to dust; and only recently Sir Oliver 



20 The Fundamentals 

Lodge from the presidential chair told the British Association 
that the best science warranted belief in the continuity of 
existence after death. Solely on the assumption that mind is 
merely a function of matter can the dissolution of the body 
be regarded as the extinction of being. Such an assumption 
is foreign to Scripture. In the Old Testament David ex- 
pected to "dwell in the house of the Lord forever;" Asaph 
at the end of life hoped to be "received into glory;" and 
Solomon wrote: "Then shall the dust return to the earth as 
it was, and the spirit shall return to God who gave it." In 
the New Testament Christ took for granted that Abraham, 
Isaac and Jacob, though long dead were still living, and in His 
parable assumed that Dives and Lazarus still existed in the 
unseen world, although their bodies were in the grave. He 
also assured the dying robber that when the anguish of the 
cross was over they would pass together into Paradise, and 
counselled men generally to be afraid of "him who could 
destroy both soul and body in hell." Paul, too, had no hesita- 
tion in writing that to be "absent from the body" meant to be 
present with the Lord," nor had Stephen any doubt in praying 
as he closed his eyes in death : "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit." 
None of these citations suggest that the soul is simply a func- 
tion of the body, or that it ceases to be when the body dies. 

But now, conceding that the souls of the impenitent are 
not annihilated at or after death, may it not be that another 
opportunity of accepting the Gospel will be afforded them, and 
that in this way sin may be removed even from them. This 
theory of a Second Probation, is commonly thought to derive 
countenance from two passages of Scripture of doubtful inter- 
pretation — 1 Pet. 3:19; 4:6. Were the best scholars agreed 
as to the exact import of the two statements that Christ "by 
the Spirit went and preached to the spirits in prison" and that 
"the Gospel was preached also to them that are dead," it 
might be possible to make these texts the basis of a theological 
doctrine. But scholars are not agreed; and well informed 



The Biblical Conception of Sin 21 

students of the Bible are aware that both statements can be 
explained in such a way as to render them useless as a basis 
for the doctrine of a secpnd probation. In judging concern- 
ing this, therefore, dependence must be placed on texts which 
admit of no dubiety as to their meaning. Such texts are Matt. 
12 : 32 : "Whosoever speaketh a word against the Holy Ghost 
it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in that 
which is to come" — ^no second chance in this case. Matt. 
25 : 48 : "These shall go away into everlasting punishment, 
but the righteous into life eternal." Not much hope here 
of the ultimate destruction of sin through a second probation. 
Every attempt to find room for the idea shatters itself on the 
unchallengeable fact that the words "everlasting" and "eternal" 
are the same in Greek (aionion) and indicate that the pun- 
ishment of the wicked and the blessedness of the righteous are 
of equal duration. 2 Cor. 6:2: "Behold, now is the day of 
salvation" — not hereafter in a future state of existence, but 
here in this world. Nor is it merely that the doctrine of a 
second probation is devoid of support from Scripture, but, 
contrary to all experience, it takes for granted that every 
unsaved soul would accept the second offer of salvation, which 
is more than any one can certainly aifirm ; and, if all did not, 
sin would still remain. It may be argued that all would accept 
because of the fuller light they would then have as to the 
paramount importance of salvation, or because of the stronger 
influences that will then be brought to bear upon them ; but on 
this hypothesis a reflection would almost seem to be cast on 
God for not having done all He might have done to save men 
while they lived, a reflection good men will be slow to make. 

The third theory for banishing sin from the human family 
if not from the universe is that of Universalism, by which is 
signified that through reformatory discipline hereafter the souls 
of all will be brought into subjection to Jesus Christ. That 
the universal headship of Christ is taught in Scripture is true : 
Paul declares that all things will yet be subdued unto Christ 



22 The Fundamentals 

(1 Cor. 15:28) and that it was God's purpose in the fulness 
of the times "to gather all things into one in Christ" (Eph. 
1: 10). But these statements do not necessarily demand the 
inference that all will surrender in willing subjection to Christ. 
Subject to Him must every power and authority be, human 
and angelic, hostile and friendly, believing and unbelieving. 
"He must reign till all His enemies have been placed beneath 
His feet" — not taken to His heart, received into His love and 
employed in His service. This does not look like universal 
salvation and the complete extinction of moral evil or sin in 
the universe. Solemn and sad as the thought is that sin 
should remain, if not in many, yet in some of God's creatures, 
it is the teaching of Scripture. In the resurrection at the last 
day, it is written, "All who are in their graves shall come 
forth, they that have done good unto the resurrection of life; 
and they that have done evil unto the resurrection of damna- 
tion," or "judgment" (R. V.) (John 5 : 29). 

A dark and insoluble mystery was the coming of sin into 
God's universe at the first : as dark a mystery is its remaining 
in a race that was from eternity the object of God's love and 
in time was redeemed by the blood of God's Son, and graciously 
acted on by God's Spirit. Happily we are not required to 
understand all mysteries : we can leave this one confidently in 
the Divine Father's hand. 



CHAPTER II 

AT-ONE-MENT BY PROPITIATION 

BY DYSON HAGUE, 

VICAR OF THE CHURCH OF THE EPIPHANY, TORONTO, CANADA; 

PROFESSOR OF LITURGICS, WYCLIFFE COLLEGE, TORONTO ; 

CANON OF ST. PAULAS CATHEDRAL, LONDON, ONT., 1908-1912 

The importance of the subject is obvious. The Atonement 
is Christianity in epitome. It is the heart of Christianity as 
a system ; it is the distinguishing mark of the Christian reHgion. 
For Christianity is more than a revelation ; it is more than an 
ethic. Christianity is uniquely a religion of redemption. At 
the outset we take the ground that no one can clearly appre- 
hend this great theme who is not prepared to take Scripture 
as it stands, and to treat it as the final and authoritative source 
of Christian knowledge, and the test of every theological 
theory. Any statement of the atonement, to satisfy completely 
the truly intelligent Christian, must not antagonize any of 
the Biblical viewpoints. And further; to approach fairly the 
subject, one must receive with a certain degree of reservation 
the somewhat exaggerated representations of what some 
modern writers conceive to be the views of orthodoxy. We 
cannot deduce Scriptural views of the atonement from non- 
Biblical conceptions of the Person of Christ; and the ideas 
that Christ died because God was insulted and must punish 
somebody, or that the atonement was the propitiation of an 
angry Monarch-God who let off the rogue while He tortured 
the innocent, and such like travesties of the truth, are simply 
the misrepresentations of that revamped Socinianism, which is 
so widely leavening the theology of many of the outstanding 
thought-leaders of today in German, British, and American 
theology. 

23 



24 The Fundamentals 

The subject will be dealt with from four viewpoints: the 
Scriptural, the Historical, the Evangelico-Ecclesiastical, the 
Practical. 

I. THE ATONEMENT FROM THE SCRIPTURAL VIEWPOINT 

THE OLD TESTAMENT WITNESS 

As we study the Old Testament we are struck with the 
fact that in the Old Testament system, without an atoning 
sacrifice there could be no access for sinful men into the pres- 
ence of the Holy God. The heart and center of the Divinely 
revealed religious system of God's ancient people was that 
without a propitiatory sacrifice there could be no acceptable 
approach to God. There must be acceptance before there is 
worship; there must be atonement before there is acceptance. 
This atonement consisted in the shedding of blood. The 
blood-shedding was the effusion of life; for the life of the 
flesh is in the blood — a dictum which the modem science of 
physiology abundantly confirms (Lev. 17:11-14). The blood 
shed was the blood of a victim which was to be ceremonially 
blemishless (Ex. 12:5; 1 Pet. 1:19) ; and the victim that was 
slain was a vicarious or substitutionary representative of the 
worshipper (Lev. 1 :4; 3:2, 8, 13; 4:4, 15, 24, 29; 16:21, etc.). 
The death of the victim was an acknowledgment of the guilt 
of sin, and its exponent. 

In one word: the whole system was designed to teach the 
holiness and righteousness of God, the sinfulness of men, and 
the guilt of sin ; and, above all, to show that it was God's will 
that forgiveness should be secured, not on account of any 
works of the sinner or anything that he could do, any act of 
repentance or exhibition of penitence, or performance of ex- 
piatory or restitutionary works, but solely on account of the 
undeserved grace of God through the death of a victim guilty 
of no offence against the Divine law, whose shed blood repre- 
sented the substitution of an innocent for a guilty life. (See 



At-One-Ment by Propitiation 25 

"Lux Mundi," p. 237. The idea, in p. 232, that sacrifice is 
essentially the expression of unfallen love, is suggestive, but 
it would perhaps be better to use the word "also" instead of 
"essentially." See also, the extremely suggestive treatment in 
Gibson's "Mosaic Era," of the Ritual of the Altar, p. 146.) It 
is obvious that the whole system was transitory and imperfect, 
as the eighth chapter of Hebrews shows. Not because it 
was revolting as the modern mind objects, for God intended 
them thereby to learn how revolting sin was and how deserving 
of death; but because in its essence it was typical, and pro- 
phetical, and intended to familiarize God's people with the 
great idea of atonement, and at the same time to prepare 
for the sublime revelation of Him who was to come, the 
despised and rejected of men Who was to be smitten of God 
and afflicted. Who was to be wounded for our transgressions 
and bruised for our iniquities, Whose soul was to be made 
an offering for sin (Isa. 53:5, 8, 10, 12). 

THE NEW TESTAMENT WITNESS 

When we come to the New Testament we are struck with 
three things : 

First. The unique prominence given to the death of 
Christ in the four Gospels. This is unparalleled. It is with- 
out analogy, not only in Scripture, but in history, the most 
curious thing about it being that there was no precedent for 
it in the Old Testament (Dale, "Atonement," p. 51). No 
particular value or benefit is attached to the death of anybody 
in the Old Testament ; nor is there the remotest trace of any- 
body's death having an expiatory or humanizing or regenera- 
tive effect. There were plenty of martyrs and national heroes 
in Hebrew history, and many of them were stoned and sawn 
asunder, were tortured and slain with the sword, but no Jewish 
writer attributes any ethical or regenerative importance to 
their death, or to the shedding of their blood. 



26 The Fundamentals 

Second. It is evident to the impartial reader of the New 
Testament that the death of Christ was the object of His in- 
carnation. His crucifixion was the main purport of His 
coming. While His glorious life was and is the inspiration 
of humanity, after all. His death was the reason of His life. 
His mission was mainly to die. Beyond thinking of death as 
the terminus or the inevitable climax of life, the average man 
rarely alludes to or thinks of death. In all biography it is 
accepted as the inevitable. But with Christ, His death was the 
purpose for which He came down from heaven: "For this 
cause came I to this hour" (John 12:27). From the outset of 
His career it was the overshadowing event. It was distinctly 
foreseen. It was voluntarily undergone, and, in Mark 10:45, 
He says : "The Son of Man came to give His life a ransom for 
many." We are not in the habit of paying ransoms, and the 
metaphor nowadays is unfamiliar. But, to the Jew, ransom 
was an everyday custom. It was what was given in exchange 
for the life of the first-born. It was the price which every 
man paid for his life. It was the underlying thought of the 
Mosaic and prophetical writings (Lev. 25 :25, 48; Num. 18:15 ; 
Psa. 49:7; Isa. 35:10; 51:11; 43:14; Ex. 13:13; 30:12, 16; 
34:20; Hos. 13:14; etc., etc.) ; and so, when Christ made the 
statement, it was a concept which would be immediately 
grasped. He came to give His life a ransom, that through the 
shedding of His blood we might receive redemption, or eman- 
cipation, both from the guilt and from the power of son. (The 
modernists endeavor to evacuate this saying of Christ of all 
meaning. The text, unfortunately for them, is stubborn, but 
the German mind is never at a loss for a theory; so it is 
asserted that they are indications that Peter has been Paulin- 
ized, so reluctant is the rationalizer to take Scripture as it 
stands, and to accept Christ's words in their obvious meaning, 
when they oppose his theological aversions.) 

Third. The object of the death of Christ was the forgive- 
ness of sins. The final cause of His manifestation was re- 



At-One-Ment by Propitiation 27 

mission. It would be impossible to summarize all the teach- 
ing of the New Testament on this subject. (The student is 
referred to Crawford, who gives 160 pages to the texts in 
the New Testament, and Dale's "Summary," pp. 443-458.) 

It is clear, though, that, to our Saviour's thought, His 
cross and passion was not the incidental consequence of His 
oppdsition to the degraded religious standards of His day, 
and that He did not die as a martyr because death was pref- 
erable to apostasy. His death was the means whereby men 
should obtain forgiveness of sins and eternal life (John 3:14, 
16; Matt. 26:28). The consentient testimony of the New 
Testament writers, both in the Acts and in the Epistles, is that 
Christ died no accidental death, but suffered according to the 
will of God, His own volition, and the predictions of the 
prophets, and that His death was substitutionary, sacrificial, 
atoning, reconciling and redeeming (John 10:18; Acts 2:23; 
Rom. 3:25; 5:6, 9; 1 Cor. 15:3; 2 Cor. 5:15, 19, 21; Heb. 
9:14, 26, etc., etc.). In proof, it will be sufficient to take the 
inspired testimony of the three outstanding writers, St. Peter» 
St. John, and St. Paul. 

ST. Peter's witness. 

To St. Peter's mind, the death of Jesus was the central fact 
of revelation and the mystery, as well as the climax, of the In- 
carnation. The shedding of His blood was sacrificial; it was 
covenanting; it was sin-covering; it was redeeming; it was 
ransoming; it was the blood of the Immaculate Lamb, which 
emancipates from sin (1 Pet. 1 :2, 11, 18, 19). In all his post- 
Pentecostal deliverances he magnifies the crucifixion as a reve- 
lation of the enormity of human sin, never as a revelation 
of the infinitude of the Divine love (Dale, p. 115). His death 
was not merely an example; it was substitutionary. It was 
the death of the sin-bearer. "Christ also suffered for us," "He 
bare our sins," meaning that He took their penalty and their 
consequence (Lev. 5:17; 24;15; Num. 9:13; 14:32, 34; Ezek. 



28 The Fundamentals 

18:19, 20). His death was the substitutionary, the vicarious 
work of the innocent on behalf of, in the place of, and in- 
stead of, the guilty (1 Pet. 3:18). (It is surely an evidence 
of the bias of modernism to interpret this as bearing them 
in sympathy merely.) 

ST. JOHNS WITNESS 

According to St. John, the death of the Lord Jesus Christ 
was propitiatory, substitutionary, purificatory. It was the 
Hilasmos; the objective ground for the remission of our sins. 

The narrow and superficial treatment of modernism, which, 
if it does not deny the Johannine authorship of the fourth 
Gospel and the Revelation, at least insinuates that the death of 
Christ has no parallel place in the writings of St. John to 
that which it has in the writings of St. Peter and St. Paul, 
and the other New Testament authors, is entirely contra- 
dicted by the plain statements of the Word itself. 

The glory of the world to come is the sacrificed Lamb. 
The glory of heaven is not the risen or ascended Lord, but 
the Lamb that was slaughtered (Rev. 5:6-12; 7:10; 21:23, 
etc.). The foremost figure in the Johannine Gospel is the 
Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world, who. 
lifts the sin-burden by expiating it as the Sin-Bearer. The 
center of the Johannine evangel is not the teaching Christ, but 
the uplifted Christ, whose death is to draw as a magnet the 
hearts of mankind, and whose life as the Good Shepherd is 
laid down for the sheep. (John 12:32; 10:11-15). 

No one who fairly faces the text could deny that the ob- 
jective ground for the forgiveness of sins, in the mind of 
St. John, is the death of Christ, and that the most funda- 
mental conception of sacrifice and expiation is found in the 
writings of him who wrote by the Spirit of God, "He is 
the propitiation of our sins, and not for ours only" (I John 
2:2). "Hereby perceive we the love of God because He laid 



At-One-Ment by Propitiation 29 

down His life for us" (1 John 3: 16). "Herein is love," etc. 
(1 John 4: 10). 

The propitiatory character of the blood, the substitutionary 
character of the atonement, and, above all, the expiating char- 
acter of the work of Christ on Calvary, clearly are most in- 
dubitably set forth in the threefoldness of the historic, didactic, 
and prophetic writings of St. John. 

ST. Paul's witness 

St. Paul became, in the province of God, the construc- 
tive genius of Christianity. His place in history, through the 
Spirit, was that of the elucidator of the salient facts of 
Christianity, and especially of that one great subject which 
Christ left in a measure unexplained — His own death 
(Stalker's "St. Paul," p. 13). That great subject, its cause, its 
meaning, its result, became the very fundamentum of his Gos- 
pel. It was the commencement, center, and consummation 
of his theology. It was the elemental truth of his creed. 
He began with it. It pervaded his life. He gloried in it to the 
last. The sinner is dead, enslaved, guilty, and hopeless, without 
the atoning death of Jesus Christ. But Christ died for him, in 
his stead, became a curse for him, became sin for him, gave 
Himself for him, was an Offering and a Sacrifice to God for 
him, redeemed him, justified him, saved him from wrath, pur- 
chased him by His blood, reconciled him by His death, etc. 
To talk of Paul using the language he did as an accommo- 
dation to Jewish prejudices, or to humor the adherents of 
a current theology, is not only, as Dale says, an insult to 
the understanding of the founders of the Jewish faith, it is 
an insult to the understanding of any man with sense today. 
Christ's death was a death for sin; Christ died for our sins; 
that is, on behalf of, instead of, our sins. There was some- 
thing in sin that made His death a Divine necessity. His 
death was a propitiatory, substitutionary, sacrificial, vicarious 
death. Its object was to annul sin; to propitiate Divine jus- 



30 The Fundamentals 

tice, to procure for us God's righteousness ; to ransom us, and 
to reconcile us. Christ's death was conciliating, in that by it 
men are reconciled to God, and sin's curse 'and the sinner's 
slavery and liability to death, and incapability of returning to 
God, are overcome by the death of the Lamb who was slaugh- 
tered as a victim and immolated as a sacrifice (1 Cor. 5:7). 
To Paul the life of the Christian emerged from the death 
of Christ. All love, all regeneration, all sanctification, all 
liberty, all joy, all power, circles around the atoning work of 
the Lord Jesus Christ, who died for us, and did for us 
objectively something that man could never do, and who 
wrought that incredible, that impossible thing, salvation by 
the substitution of His life in the place of the guilty. 

THE BIBLE SUMMARY 

To epitomize, then, the presentment of the Bible : The root 
of the idea of At-one-ment is estrangement. Sin, as iniquity 
and transgression, had the added element of egoistic rebellion 
and positive defiance of God (1 John 3: 4; Rom. 5: 15, 19). 
The horror of sin is that it wrenched the race from God. It 
dashed God from His throne and placed self thereupon. It 
reversed the relationship of man and God. Its blight and 
its passion have alienated mankind, enslaved it, condemned 
it, doomed it to death, exposed it to wrath. The sacrifice of 
the cross is the explanation of the enormity of sin, and the 
measure of the love of the redeeming Trinity. Surely it is 
ignorance that says God loves because Christ died. Christ 
died because God loves. Propitiation does not awaken love; 
it is love that provides expiation. To cancel the curse, to lift 
the ban, to inoculate the antitoxin of grace, to restore life, 
to purchase pardon, to ransom the enslaved, to defeat Satan's 
work; in one word, to reconcile and restore a lost race; for 
this, Jesus Christ, the Son of God, and Son of Man, came into 
this world and offered up His Divine-human Person, body and 
soul. 



At-One-Ment by Propitiation 31 

Christ's death upon the cross, both as a substitute and as 
the federal representative of humanity, voluntary, altruistic, 
vicarious, sinless, sacrificial, purposed not accidental, from 
the standpoint of humanity unconscionably brutal, but from 
the standpoint of love indescribably glorious, not only satis- 
fied all the demands of the Divine righteousness, but offered 
the most powerful incentive to repentance, morality, and self- 
sacrifice. The Scripture in its completeness thus sets forth 
the substance of the two great theories, the moral and the 
vicarious, and we find in the rotundity or allness of the 
Scriptural presentment no mere partial or antagonistic seg- 
ments of truth, but the completeness of the spiritual, moral, 
altruistic and atoning asi>ects of the death of Christ. (Hodge 
on the "Atonement," pp. 292-320, and Workman, "At-one-ment 
and Reconciliation with God," may in different ways be taken 
as representative of a one-sided way of treating a great sub- 
ject. The Socinian view that Christ's death was mainly, if 
not exclusively, to produce a reconciling influence upon the 
heart of mankind, which Workman espouses, is as narrow, if 
not narrower, and as partial as Hodge's advocacy of the 
theory that Christ died for the elect only) . 

II. THE HISTORICAL 

We will discuss this aspect of the subject in four brief 
sections : The Primitive, the Mediaeval, the Reformational, the 
Modern. 

THE PRIMITIVE CHURCH WITNESS 

With regard to the writers and writings of the primitive 
church in the Ante-Nicene and the Post-Nicene era, it may 
be said, broadly speaking, that the atonement is presented by 
them as a fact, with its saving and regenerative effects. The 
consciousness of the primitive church did not seem to be 
alive to the necessity of the formation of any particular theory 
of the atonement. It follows the Apostle's Creed, which makes 



32 The Fundamentals 

no reference whatever to the miraculous words or marvel- 
lous works of Jesus, but significantly passes by them all to 
focus the confession of the Church upon the great purpose 
and achievement of the Incarnation; His suffering as the 
Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. As regards the 
writers of the post-apostolic age, Clement of Rome, Origen, 
and Athanasius, may be referred to as outstanding exponents 
of the Church's thought in the first four centuries. Of the 
first and third it may be said that they simply amplified the 
language of the New Testament. There is no trace of the 
attitude of the modernist, with its brilliant attempts to ex- 
plain away the obvious. Their doctrine of the atonement is 
entirely free, as has been said, from the incrusting difficulties 
of spurious explanation. There were no attempts at phil- 
osophy or sophistry, though, as was to be expected, there was 
more or less of the embroidery of the oriental imagination, 
and a plethora of metaphor. (Justin Martyr, Chrysostom, and 
Augustine, may be mentioned also here.) 

Origen, following possibly Irenseus, is accredited with the 
theory that the atonement was a ransom paid to Satan. This 
was the theory of Gregory of Nyssa, Leo Magnus, and Gregory 
the Great. It was a weird theory, involving some strange con- 
clusions, and evoked the antagonism of Gregory Nazianzen 
and John of Damascus. 

THE MEDIAEVAL VIEW 

As we pass into the mediaeval period (broadly speaking, 
from 500 to 1500 A. D.), we find that, with one or two excep- 
tions, the ransom-paid-to-the-devil hypothesis held sway. It 
was not a thinking era, and the imprisonment of the Bible 
meant the reign of ignorance. 

In the eleventh century, Anselm appeared. He was an 
Italian by birth, a Norman by training, and Archbishop of 
Canterbury by office. Anselm's Cur Deus Homo is probably 
the greatest work on the atonement that has ever been written. 



At-One-Ment by Propitiation 33 

The work is great because it contains great conceptions of 
God, and great conceptions of sin. Sin is not to render to 
God His due, and the sinner is bound to pay back the honor 
of which he has robbed God. It is a debt we are obliged to 
pay, and failing to do it, we must die. As sin is debt, there 
are only two ways in which man can be righted with God; 
either by incurring no debt, or by paying the debt. But this, 
man cannot do, and herein comes the glory of the Gospel of 
the atonement, securing at once the honor of God and the salva- 
tion of the sinners. No one ouffht to make satisfaction for the 
sin of man except man, and no one can make satisfaction ex- 
cept God Himself. He who makes the satisfaction for human 
sin must, therefore, be man and God ; and so in wondrous 
love, the God-Man of His own accord offered to the Father 
what He could not have been compelled to lose, and paid for 
our sins what He did not owe for Himself. 

The Anselmic conceptions of God, of sin, of man, and of 
the soul are so transcendent that they are altogether too 
strong and too high for this age. His theory seems fantastic, 
his reasoning preposterous to the modern mind. Yet, after 
all, Anselm has never been surpassed. His mind was filled 
with the august greatness of God, the just penalty of sin, the 
impossibility of human atonement; and the atoning work of 
Christ, because of the Person who did the deed, outweighed 
the sins of all mankind, and bound mankind to the suffering 
Son of God by bonds of love that eternity will not sever. 

Anselm swayed his own and has swayed every succeeding 
age. The counter theories of Abelard and Duns Scotus 
(Moberly, p. 372; Dale, p. 285), in which the modern mind 
is much more interested, and with which it is much more 
sympathetic, may be regarded as the foregleams of modern 
Unitarianism. 

THE REFORMATION ERA 

When we pass to the Reformation era, we find that the 
Pauline- Augustinian presentment of the subject is almost uni- 



34 The Fundamentals 

versal. The reformers, Lutheran and Calvinistic, were prac- 
tically agreed in representing the death of Christ as an aton- 
ing death. Both the Lutheran and the Reformed systems of 
theology alike, the latter, of course, including all the Anglican 
reformers, held the forensic idea of the death of Christ, which 
is so obviously manifest in the Pauline, Petrine, and Johannine 
presentments of the truth. 

Turretin, the most distinguished writer on the subject of 
the atonement of the Reformation era; Mastricht, a half cen- 
tury later, and Hugo Grotius, the antagonist of Socinius (whose 
Defensio fidei Catholicae de satisfactione Christi appeared in 
1617) ; all of them, with various divergences, held the sacri- 
ficial, representative, vicarious theory of atonement (Dale, 
pp. 290-297; Hodge, Sys, Theol. H., 573-575). 

THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 

As we pass into the modern world of theology, three out- 
standing names in the nineteenth century may be selected as 
the representatives of the so-called orthodox, and three as 
representatives of the broader school of theology. The works 
of Crawford of Edinburgh, of Dale of Birmingham, and of 
Denney of Glasgow, are probably the finest expositions of the 
subject from the Scriptural and spiritual standpoint. All of 
them try to set forth the doctrine of the atonement in the 
language of the New Testament, and according to the mind of 
the inspired writers, and take their stand upon the vicarious, 
substitutionary character of the atonement. Professor A, A. 
Hodge's work is also most able and most scholarly. It is the 
strongest thing ever written on the subject from the Calvin- 
istic standpoint. Bushnell, the American; Jowett, the Angli- 
can ; and McLeod Campbell, the Scotchman ; may be taken as 
representatives of the, broader school. All of them are inclined 
to select a number of the texts which unquestionably favor 
their theory, and to minimize almost to the point of explain- 
ing away those statements of the Old Testament, and of the 



At-One-Ment by Propitiation 35 

New, which emphasize the gravity of the guilt of sin and the 
necessity of sacrifice as the objective ground of its forgiveness. 
They all of them incline to represent the sufferings of Christ 
as sympathetic, rather than vicarious; and, with the Sweden- 
borgians, make the atonement to consist not in what Christ 
did or offered by dying in our stead, so much as what He 
accomplished for us in His reconciling love. The atonement 
was the Incarnation. That was the revelation of God's love ; 
and the sufferings of Christ were not a substitute for the 
penalty of sin, but Christ's expiatory-penitential confession 
of the sins of humanity. McLeod Campbell, who is followed 
by Moberly, held the theory that the repentance of Christ, or 
the penitence of Christ, had in it atoning worth, and was the 
proper expiation of sin (Moberly, 129, 401; "The Atonement 
in Modern Religious Thought," p. 375; Clow, 160; Stalker, 
135). (This theory, by the way, is becoming very popular 
nowadays.) 

In one word; the object of the death of Christ was the 
production of a moral impression, the subduement of a re- 
volted world-heart by the exhibition of dying love. This is 
practically also the Ritschlian view, which, after all, is a 
re-statement of the old Socinian theory, of the distrust-remov- 
ing and confidence-re-establishing effect of the cross. 

Frederick Maurice and Robertson of Brighton (the noblest 
spirit of them all) may also be referred to as leaders in this 
the broader school (Crawford, 303, 348). They were followed 
by such Church writers as Farrar, Moberly, Freemantle, and 
by Cave, Adeney, Horton, R. J. Campbell, in the Old Country, 
and in the United States by Lyman Abbott, Washington Glad- 
den, Munger, and a host of others. 

MODERNISM 

When we come to the most daring of the present day 
theories with regard to the atonement, as set forth, for in- 
stance, in Sabatier, or the latest work of American modem- 



36 The Fundamentals 

ism, "The Atonement, by Three Chicago Professors of 
Theology," we are startled with the advance. A very broad 
space of rationalism intervenes between the broad school 
of today and the broad school of half a century ago. The 
present day liberal theology may be traced to two streams of 
influence : 

First. The influence of German rationalism, pre-eminently 
the Ritschlian theology, and the critical theories of Well- 
hausen, Kuenen and their school. 

Second. The widespread acceptance of the tlieory of evolu- 
tion. 

To the first may be traced the free and easy way of the 
modernists of dealing with the Scriptures ; and to the second, 
the revolutionized attitude of theologians with regard to sin, 
its source, its penalty, and its atonement. Albrecht Ritschl, 
Professor of Theology at Gottingen, whose magnum opus, 
"Justification and Reconciliation," was published in 1870, is 
par excellence, the ruling influence of continental theology. 

What Germany thought yesterday, America and Scotland 
think today, and England will think tomorrow. It is an 
epigram that has more than a grain of truth in it. The 
Germanic way of accepting or rejecting what it pleases of 
the Bible, and opposing its knowledge to the authority of the 
apostles, is becoming more and more the custom of the lead- 
ing theologians of the three ruling nations of today, British, 
American, and German. If a text is inconvenient, modernism 
disputes it; if a passage is antagonistic, it dismisses it as 
Pauline or Petrine, not Christian. 

Suppose a Christian of the old days was to enter for the 
first time the class room of one of the extremer modernist pro- 
fessors, addressing a representative body of theologians from 
Germany, Britain, or the United States. He would be amazed 
to hear the rankest Socinianism taught. The question the pro- 
fessor would propose would not be the vicarious or the moral 
theory of the sacrifice of Christ, but did Christ really die, and 



At-One-Ment by Propitiation 37 

was there any need of the atoning death ? He would state, in 
the coolest possible manner, that the supposition of God's dis- 
pleasure or wrath at sin is an archaic concept; that sin is not 
guilt as traditional theology conceives, nor does it need any 
propitiation, and that there is no need of salvation, for there 
never was a fall. (A God who thinks of poor, hard-worked 
people as miserable sinners, who must account themselves for- 
tunate to be forgiven for Christ's sake, says one of the fore- 
most British modernists, is no God at all. The theologian 
may call Him a God of love, but in practice He is spiteful 
and silly!) The doctrine of evolution has washed out of the 
Bible the existence of such a man as Adam, and biology has 
taught that death is not due to sin. He would then probably 
hear the professor going on to show that nobody nowadays 
thinks of sin as Paul did; that it is impwssible for the man 
of today, familiarized with the doctrine of evolution and the 
researches of Biblical scholarship, to think of sin as a debt 
that is due to God; that the God of the Bible is, after all, 
only the God of traditional theology. In one word, he would 
hear that what this age not only demands, but requires, is a 
reconstructed Bible, a re-interpreted Biblical theology, and a 
presentment of apostolic conceptions in accordance with the 
modern mind. 

Bu,t a theology which begins with accepting or rejecting 
according to its caprice such sections of the Word of God as 
it pleases, and substituting its own fancies for the New Testa- 
ment conceptions of sin, of guilt, of wrath, and death, and the 
idea of punishment, naturally tends to the climax of repudiat- 
ing the Deity of our Saviour and the teaching of His in- 
spired apostles! A Pelagian hamartology invariably leads 
to a Socinian Christology; and a Socinian Christology in- 
variably goes hand in hand with a rationalistic soteriology. 
If there is no objective Deity, there can be no sin. If man is 
God, there can be no guilt; and if there was no fall, and if it 
is the rise, not the fall of man with which the study of 



38 The Fundamentals 

history makes us acquainted, there is, of course, no need for 
redemption; and if there is no need for redemption, tliere 
could, of course, be no ransom, or Redeemer, and an atone- 
ment is theologically and philosophically absurd. If there 
is no special creation, and man is a mere evolution from 
some frog or horse or anthropoid, why, of course, there can 
be no talk of atonement. If there is no storm and nobody 
is drowning, why on earth should anyone launch a lifeboat! 
If the wages of sin is not death, what evangel is there in the 
death of Christ for sin and sinners ? 

After reading, with every attempt to be sympathetic, the 
works of the modern theological thought leaders in Great 
Britain and the United States, we seriously conclude that mod- 
ernism is in essence the sophism of which Paul speaks in 
1 Cor. 1: 19-22; Rom. 1:22; Col. 2:8, and 1 Tim. 6:20. 

III. THE EVANGELICO-ECCLESIASTICAL 

THE CONSENSUS OF ALL THE CHURCHES 

When we turn to this subject as set forth in the standards 
of the representatives of the leading Protestant churches, it 
is refreshing to find what substantial unity there is among 
them. In all the Creeds and Church Confessions the death of 
Christ is set forth as the central fact of Christianity; for it 
ought to be remembered that the Reformed Churches accepted 
equally with the Roman Church the historic platform of the 
three great creeds, and that in all these creeds that subject 
stands pre-eminent. In the Apostles' Creed, for instance, 
there is not the slightest mention of Christ's glorious example 
as a man, or of the works and words of His marvelous life. 
All is passed over, in order that the faith of the Church in 
all ages may at once be focused upon His sufferings and His 
death. And as to the various doctrinal standards, a reference 
to the Articles of the Church of England, or the Westminster 
Confession of Faith, or the Methodist, or Baptist formularies 
of belief, at once shows that the atonement is treated as one 



At-One-Ment by Propitiation 39 

of the fundamentals of the faith. It may be stated in language 
that a modern theologian finds difficult to accept and would 
gladly explain away ; but it is unquestionably asserted to be no 
mere at-one-ment in the Ritschlian sense, but a real vicarious 
offering ; a redemptive death ; a reconciling death ; a sin-bearing 
death; a sacrificial death for the guilt and sins of men. His 
death was the death of the Divine Victim. It was a satis- 
faction for man's guilt. It propitiated God. It satisfied the 
justice of the Father. The modern mind sees only one side 
to reconciliation. It looks at truth from only one standpoint. 
It fails to take into account the fact of the wrath of God, and 
that 1 John 2:1, and Rom. 3 : 25 teach that Christ's death does 
something that can only be expressed as "propitiating." The 
modern theory ignores one side of the truth, and antagonizes 
the two complementary sides, and is, therefore, not to be 
trusted. The Church standards simply set forth, of course, in 
necessarily imperfect language, the truth as it is in the Scrip- 
tures of God. Perhaps no finer summary of their teaching 
could be found than the language of the Anglican communion 
service: "Jesus Christ, God's only Son, suffered death upon 
the cross for our redemption, and made there, by His one 
oblation of Himself once offered, a full, perfect, and sufficient 
sacrifice, oblation and satisfaction for the sins of the whole 
world." 

IV. THE PRACTICAL 

THE POW£R OF HIS DEATH 

We finally consider the atonement in its actual power. 
As we glance through the vistas of history we see it exempli- 
fied in innumerable lives. Paul, Augustine, Francis of Assisi, 
Luther, Latimer, with a myriad myriad of the sinful, strug- 
gling, weary, despondent, and sin-sick sons of men, laden with 
the sin- weight, haunted with the guilt- fear, struggling with 
the sin-force, tormented with the sin-pain, have found in Him 
who died their peace. "The atonement," said the great scien- 



40 The Fundamentals 

tist, Sir David Brewster, "Oh, it is everything to me! It 
meets my reason, it satisfies my conscience, it fills my heart.' 
(See also that fine passage in Drummond, the "Ideal Life," 
p. 187.) 

Or, take our hymns. We want no better theology and no 
better religion than are set forth in these hymns, says a great 
theologian (Hodge, Syst Theol., ii: 591), which voice the 
triumph, and the confidence, and the gratitude, and the loyalty 
of the soul, such as: 

"Rock of Ages, cleft for me, 
Let me hide myself in Thee." 

"My faith looks up to Thee, 
Thou Lamb of Calvary." 

"When I survey the wondrous cross. 
On which the Prince of glory died." 

Or take the preacher's power. It must be built upon 
reality as real as life itself ; on what the Son of God has done 
for him. One of the greatest of the nineteenth century 
preachers said, "Looking back upon all the chequered way, I 
have to say that the only preaching that has done me good 
is the preaching of a Saviour who bore my sins in His own 
body on the tree, and the only preaching by which God has 
enabled me to do good to others is the preaching in which I 
have held up my Saviour, not as a sublime example, but as 
the Lamb of God that taketh away the sins of the world!" 
And the work of Christ did not end with His death upon the 
cross. As the risen and ascended One, He continues it. 
The Crucified is still drawing souls to Himself. He is still 
applying His healing blood to the wounded conscience. We 
do not preach a Christ who was alive and is dead ; we preach 
the Christ who was dead and is alive. It is not the extension 



At-One-Ment by Propitiation 41 

of the Incarnation merely ; it is the perpetuation of the cruci- 
fixion that is the vital nerve of Christianity. 

But orthodoxy must not be dissevered from orthopraxy. 
Maclaren, of Manchester, tells us, in one of his charming 
volumes, that he once heard of a man who was of a very 
shady character, but was sound on the atonement. But what 
on earth is the good of being sound on the atonement if the 
atonement does not make you sound? Anyone who reads his 
New Testament or understands the essence of apostolic Chris- 
tianity must understand that a mere theoretic acceptance of 
the atonement, unaccompanied by a penetration of the life and 
character of the principles of Jesus Christ, is of no value 
whatever. The atonement is not a mere formula for assent; 
it is a life principle for realization. In that we agree with 
Goldwin Smith. But is it not a fact that, wherever the atone- 
ment is truly received, it generates love to God, and love to 
man; evokes a hatred and horror of sin; and offers not only 
the highest incentive to self-sacrifice, but the most powerful 
dynamic for the life of righteousness? 

To the soul that beholds the Lamb of God, and finds peace 
through the blood of the cross, there comes a sense of joyous 
relief, a consciousness of deep satisfaction, that is newness 
of life. 

Yes, a Christianity that is merely a system of morals, and 
the best only of natural religions, is not worth preserving. A 
Christianity without a Christ Divine, an atonement vicarious, 
and a Bible inspired, will never carry power. A devitalized 
Gospel, a diluted Gospel, an attenuated Gospel, will conceive 
no splendid program, inspire no splendid effort. It never 
did produce a martyr; it never will. It never inspired a re- 
former, and it never will. The two religious poverties of 
the day, a lost sense of sin, and a lost sense of God, are 
simply the resull^ of this attenuated Socinianism that is be- 
coming so prevalent. No minister of Christ has any right to 
smooth off the corners of the cross. At the same time, a 



42 The Fundamentals 

Christianity that is merely orthodoxy, or an orthodoxy clasped 
in the dead hand of a moribund Christianity, is one of the 
greatest of curses. A Church that is only the custodian of the 
great tradition of the past, and not the expression of a force- 
ful spiritual life; a Christian who is simply conserving a tra- 
ditional creed, and not exemplifying the life of the living 
God, is a cumberer of the ground. A dead Church can never 
be the exponent of the living God, and a dead Church-man can 
never be the exponent of a living Church, for the test of every 
religious, political or educational system, after all, as Amiel 
says, is the man it forms (Amiel, p. 27). 

(The chief works on the atonement which have been re- 
ferred to are the following: Hodge, Dale, Denney, Crawford, 
Stalker, Van Dyke, Moberly, Clow, Simpson, Sabatier, Cham- 
pion, Armour, Workman, Cunningham, Van Oosterzee, 
Ritschl, and Anselm.) 



CHAPTER III 

THE GRACE OF GOD 

BY REV. C. I. SCOFIELD, D. D., 
EDITOR "SCOFIELD REFERENCE BIBLE" 

Grace is an English word used in the New Testament to 
translate the Greek word. Charts, which means "favor," with- 
out recompense or equivalent. If there is any compensatory 
act or payment, however slight or inadequate, it is "no more 
grace" — Charis. 

When used to denote a certain attitude or act of God to- 
ward man it is therefore of the very essence of the matter 
that human merit or deserving is utterly excluded. In grace 
God acts out from Himself, toward those who have deserved, 
not His favor, but His wrath. In the structure of the Epistle 
to the Romans grace does not enter, could not enter, till a 
whole race, without one single exception, stands guilty and 
speechless before God. 

Condemned by creation, the silent testimony of the universe 
(Rom. 1 : 18, 20) ; by wilful ignorance, the loss of a knowl- 
edge of God once universal (Rom. 1 : 21) ; by senseless idolatry 
(Rom. 1 : 22, 23) ; by a manner of life worse than bestial 
(Rom. 1:24, 27) ; by godless pride and cruelty (Rom. 1:28, 
32) ; by philosophical moralizings which had no fruit in life 
(Rom. 2:1, 4); by consciences which can only "accuse" or 
seek to "excuse" but never justify (Rom. 2 : 5, 16) ; and finally 
by the very law in which those who have the law boast (Rom. 
2 : 17 ; 3 : 20) , "every mouth" is "stopped, and all the world be- 
comes guilty before God." 

In an absolute sense, the end of all flesh is come. Every- 
thing has been tried. Innocence, as of two unfallen creatures 

43 



44 The Fundamentals 

in an Eden of beauty; conscience, that is, the knowledge of 
good and evil with responsibility to do good and eschew evil; 
promises, with the help of God available through prayer ; law, 
tried on a great scale, and through centuries of forbearance, 
supplemented by the mighty ethical ministry of the prophets, 
without ever once presenting' a human being righteous before 
God (Rom. 3:19; Gal. 3:10; Heb. 7:19; Rom. 3:10, 18; 
8:3, 4) ; this is the Biblical picture. And it is against this 
dark background that grace shines out. 

DEFINITION 

The New Testament definitions of grace are both inclusive 
and exclusive. They tell us what grace is, but they are careful 
also to tell us what grace is not. The two great central defini- 
tions follow : 

"That in the ages to come He might show the exceeding 
riches of His grace in His kindness toward us through Christ 
Jesus" (Eph. 2:7). 

This is the inclusive, or affirmative, side; the negative 
aspect, what grace is not, follows : 

"For by grace are ye saved through faith ; and that not of 
yourselves : it is the gift of God : not of works, lest any man 
should boast" (Eph. 2:8, 9). 

The Jew, who is under the law when grace comes, is under 
its curse (Gal. 3: 10) ; and the Gentiles are "without Christ, 
being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers 
from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without 
God in the world" (Eph. 2: 12). 

And to this race God comes to show "the exceeding riches 
of His GRACE in His kindness toward US,'' "through 
CHRIST JESUS." 

The other great definition of grace is: "But after that 
the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man ap- 
peared" — the positive aspect ; "Not by works of righteousness 



The Grace of God 45 

which we have done, but according to His mercy He saved 
us" — the negative aspect. 

Grace, then, characterizes the present age, as law char- 
acterized the age from Sinai to Calvary. "For the law was 
given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ." 
And this contrast between law as a method and grace as a 
method runs through the whole Biblical revelation concern- 
ing grace. 

It is not, of course, meant that there was no law before 
Moses, any more than that there was no grace and truth be- 
fore Jesus Christ. The forbidding to Adam of the fruit of 
the tree of the knowledge of good and evil (Gen. 2: 17) was 
law, and surely grace was most sweetly manifested in the seek- 
ing, by the Lord God, of His sinning creatures, and in His 
clothing them with coats of skins (Gen. 3:21) — a beautiful 
type of Christ "made unto us . . . righteousness" ( 1 Cor. 
1 : 30) . Law, in the sense of some revelation of God's will, 
and grace, in the sense of some revelation of God's goodness, 
have always existed, and to this Scripture abundantly testifies. 
But "the law" as an inflexible rule of life was given by Moses, 
and, from Sinai to Calvary, dominates, characterizes, the time ; 
just as grace dominates, or gives its peculiar character to, the 
dispensation which begins at Calvary, and has its predicted 
termination in the rapture of the Church. 

LAW AND GRACE DIVERSE 

It is, however, of the most vital moment to observe that 
Scripture never, in any dispensation, mingles these two prin- 
ciples. Law always has a place and work distinct and wholly 
diverse from that of grace. Law is God prohibiting, and re- 
quiring (Ex. 20: 1, 17) ; grace is God beseeching, and bestow- 
ing (2 Cor. 5: 18, 21). Law is a ministry of condemnation 
(Rom. 3 : 19) ; grace, of forgiveness (Eph. 1:7). Law curses 
(Gal. 3 : 10) ; grace redeems from that curse (Gal. 3:1). Law 



46 The Fundamentals 

kills (Rom. 7:9, 11) ; grace makes alive (Jchn 10: 10). Law 
shuts every mouth before God; grace opens every mouth to 
praise Him. Law puts a great and guilty distance between 
man and God (Ex. 20: 18, 19) ; grace makes guilty man nigh 
to God (Eph. 2: 13). Law says, "An eye for an eye, and a 
tooth for a tooth" (Ex. 21 : 24) ; grace says, "Resist not evil; 
but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to 
him the other also" (Matt. 5:39). Laws says, "Hate thine 
enemy;" grace, "Love your enemies, bless them that despite- 
fully use you." Law says, do and live (Luke 10:26, 28); 
grace, believe and live (John 5:24). Law never had a mis- 
sionary; grace is to be preached to every creature. Law 
utterly condemns the best man (Phil. 3:4, 9); grace freely 
justifies the worst (Luke 23:24; Rom. 5:5; 1 Tim. 1: 15; 1 
Cor. 6:9, 11). Law is a system of probation; grace, of favor. 
Law stones an adulteress (Deut. 22:21) ; grace says, "Neither 
do I condemn thee" (John 8: 1, 11). Under law the sheep dies 
for the shepherd ; under grace the shepherd dies for the sheep 
(John 10: 11). 

The relation to each other of these diverse principles, law 
and grace, troubled the apostolic church. The first controversy 
concerned the ceremonial law. It was the contention of the 
legalists that converts from among the Gentiles could not be 
saved unless circumcised "after the manner of Moses" (Acts 
15: 1). This demand was enlarged when the "apostles and 
elders" had come together at Jerusalem to settle that con- 
troversy (Acts 15: 5, 6). The demand then made put in issue 
not circumcision merely, or the ceremonial law, but the whole 
Mosaic system. "That it was needful to circumcise them, and 
to command them to keep the law of Moses" (Acts 15 : 6). 

The decision of the council, as "it seemed good to the Holy 
Ghost," negatived both demands, and the new law of love 
was invoked that Gentile converts should abstain from things 
especially offensive to Jewish believers (Acts 15:28, 29). 



The Grace oj God 47 

But the confusion of these two diverse principles did not 
end with the decision of the council. The controversy con- 
tinued, and six years later the Holy Spirit, by the Apostle 
Paul, launched against the legalistic teachers from Jerusalem 
the crushing thunderbolt of the Epistle to the churches in 
Galatia. 

In this great letter every phase of the question of the 
respective spheres of law and of grace comes up for discussion 
and final, authoritative decision. 

The Apostle had called the Galatians into the grace of Christ 
(Gal. 1:6). Now grace means unmerited, unrecompensed 
favor. It is essential to get this clear. Add never so slight an 
admixture of law-works, as circumcision, or law effort, as 
of obedience to commandments, and "grace is no more grace" 
(Rom. 11:6). So absolutely is this true, that grace cannot 
even begin with us until the law has reduced us to speechless 
guilt (Rom. 3 : 19). So long as there is the slightest question of 
utter guilt, utter helplessness, there is no place for grace. If 
I am not, indeed, quite so good as I ought to be, but yet quite 
too good for hell, I am not an object for the grace of God, 
but for the illuminating and convicting and death-dealing work 
of His law. 

The law is "just" (Rom. 7:12), and therefore heartily 
approves goodness, and unsparingly condemns badness; but, 
save Jesus of Nazareth, the law never saw a man righteous 
through obedience. Grace, on the contrary, is not looking for 
good men whom it may approve, for it is not grace, but mere 
justice, to approve goodness, but it is looking for condemned, 
guilty, speechless and helpless men whom it may save through 
faith, sanctify and glorify. 

Into grace, then, Paul had called the Galatians. What 
(1:6) was his controversy with them ? Just this : they were 
"removed" from the grace of Christ into "another gospel," 
though he is swift to add, "which is not another" (Gal. 1:7). 



48 The Fundamentals 

There could not be another "gospel." Change, modify, the 
grace of Christ by the smallest degree, and you no longer 
have a gospel. A gospel is "glad tidings" ; and the law is not 
glad tidings. "What things soever the law saith, it saith to 
them who are under the law ; that every mouth may be stopped, 
and all the world become guilty before God" (Rom. 3: 19), 
and surely that is no good news. The law, then, has but one 
language; it pronounces " all the world" — "good", bad, and 
"goody-good" — "guilty". 

But you say: What is a simple child of God, who knows 
no theology, to do? Just this: to remember that any so- 
called gospel which is not pure unadulterated grace is "another" 
gospel. If it proposes, under whatever specious guise, to 
win favor of God by works, or goodness, or "character," or 
anything else which man can do, it is spurious. That is the 
unfailing test. 

But it is more than spurious, it is accursed — or rather the 
preachers of it are (Gal. 1:8, 9). It is not man who says 
that, but the Spirit of God who says it by His apostle. This 
is unspeakably solemn. Not the denial of the Gospel even, is 
so awfully serious as to pervert the Gospel. Oh, that God 
may give His people in this day power to discriminate, to 
distinguish things which differ. Alas, it is discernment which 
seems so painfully wanting. 

If a preacher is cultured, gentle, earnest, intellectual, and 
broadly tolerant, the sheep of God run after him. He, of 
course, speaks beautifully about Christ, and uses the old 
words — redemption, the cross, even sacrifice and atonement — 
but what is his Gospel? That is the crucial question. Is 
salvation, perfect, entire, eternal, — justification, sanctification, 
glory, — the alone work of Christ, and the free gift of God to 
faith alone? Or does he say: (Dr. Abbott) "Character is 
salvation," even though he may add that Christ "helps" to 
form the character? 



The Grace of God 49 

THE THREE ERRORS 

In the Epistle to the Galatians the Holy Spirit through 
Paul meets and answers the three great errors into which in 
different degrees, theological systems have fallen. 

The course of this demonstration is like the resistless 
march of an armed host. Nothing can stand before it. The 
reasonings of ancient and modern legalists are scattered like 
the chaff of the summer threshing floor. 

We have, most of us, been reared and now live under the 
influence of Galatianism. Protestant theology, alas, is for the 
most part, thoroughly Galatianized, in that neither law nor 
grace are given their distinct and separated places, as in the 
counsels of God, but are mingled together in one incoherent 
system. The law is no longer, as in the Divine intent, a 
ministration of death (2 Cor. i:7), of cursing (Gal. 3: 10), 
of conviction (Rom. 3:19), because we are taught that we 
must try to keep it, and that by Divine help we may. Nor, on 
the other hand, does grace bring us blessed deliverance from 
the dominion of sin, for we are kept under the law as a rule 
of life despite the plain declaration, "Sin shall not have do- 
minion over you: for ye are not under the law, but under 
grace" (Rom. 6: 14). 

THE FIRST ERROR 

The Spirit first meets the contention that justification is 
partly by law- works and partly by faith through grace (Gal. 
2:5 to 3:24). 

The steps are : 

1. Even the Jews, who are not like the Gentiles, hopeless, 
"and without God in the world" (Eph. 2:12), but already 
in covenant relations with God, even they, "knowing that a 
man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith 
of Jesus Christ" (Gal. 2:15, 16), have believed; "for by 
the works of the law shall no flesh be justified." 



50 The Fundamentals 

2. The law has executed its sentence upon the believer 
(Gal. 2:19); death has freed him. Identified with Christ's 
death by faith, he, in the reckoning of God, die"d with Christ 
(Rom. 6:3-10; 7:4). 

3. But righteousness is by faith, not by law (Gal. 2:21). 

4. The Holy Spirit is given to faith, not law-works (Gal. 
3:1-9). 

5. "As many as are of the works of the law are under 
the curse" — and the reason is given: "Cursed is every one 
that continueth not in all things which are written in the 
book of the law to do them" (Gal. 3:10). The law, then, 
cannot "help", but can only do its great and necessary work 
of condemnation (Rom. 3: 19, 20; 2 Cor. 3:7, 9; Gal. 3: 19; 
James 2 : 10) . 

Elsewhere (Rom. 5: 1-5) the Spirit, by the same Apostle, 
sums up the results of justification by faith with every sem- 
blance of human merit carefully excluded. Grace, through 
faith in Jesus Christ, has brought the believer into peace with 
God, a standing in grace, and assured hope of glory. Tribu- 
lation can but serve to develop in him new graces. The very 
love that saved him through grace now fills his heart; the 
Holy Spirit is given him, and he joys in God. And all by 
grace, through faith! 

THE SECOND ERROR 

The Spirit next meets and refutes the second great error 
concerning the relations of law and grace — the notion that the 
believer, though assuredly justified by faith through grace 
wholly without law-works, is, after justification, put under 
law as a rule of life. 

This is the current form of the Galatiati error. From 
Luther down, Protestantism has consistently held to justifica- 
tion by faith through grace. Most inconsistently Protestant 
theology has held to the second form of Galatianism. 



The Grace of God 51 

Ah entire section of the Epistle to the Romans, and two 
chapters of Galatians are devoted to the refutation of this 
error, and to the setting forth of the true rule of the believer's 
life. Romans 6, 7, 8, and Galatians 4 and 5, set forth the 
new Gospel of the believer's standing in grace. 

Rom. 6 : 14 states the new principle : "For sin shall not 
have dominion over you: for ye are not under the law, but 
under grace." The Apostle is not here speaking of the justi- 
fication of a sinner, but of the deliverance of a saint from the 
dominion of indwelling sin. 

In Galatians, after showing that the law had been to the 
Jew like the pedagogue in a Greek or Roman household, a 
ruler of children in their nonage (Gal. 3:23, 24) the Apostle 
says explicitly (ver. 25), "But after that faith has come, we are 
no longer under a schoolmaster" (pedagogue). 

No evasion is possible here. The pedagogue is the law 
(3:24) ; faith justifies; but the faith which justifies also ends 
the rule of the pedagogue. Modern theology says that after 
justification we are under the pedagogue. Here is a clear 
issue, an absolute contradiction between the Word of God and 
theology. Which do you side with? 

Equally futile is the timorous gloss that this whole pro- 
found discussion in Romans and Galatians relates to the 
ceremonial law. No Gentile could observe the ceremonial law. 
Even the Jews, since the destruction of the temple, A. D. 70, 
have not found it possible to keep the ceremonial law except 
in a few particulars of diet. It is not the ceremonial law which 
says, "Thou shalt not covet" {comp. Rom. 7:7-9). 

The believer is separated by death and resurrection from 
Mosaism (Rom. 6:3-15; 7:1-6; Gal. 4:19-31). The fact 
remains immutable that to God he is, as to the law, an ex- 
ecuted criminal. Justice has been completely vindicated, and 
it is no longer possible even to bring an accusation against 
him (Rom. 8:33, 34). 



52 The Fundamentals 

It is not possible to know Gospel liberty, or Gospel holi- 
ness, until this great fundamental truth is clearly, bravely 
grasped. One may be a Christian and a worthy and useful 
man, and be still under bondage to the law, but one can never 
have deliverance from the dominion of sin, nor know the 
true blessedness and rest of the Gospel and remain under 
the law. Therefore, once more, note that it is death which 
has broken the connection between the believer and the law. 
"The law hath dominion over a man as long as he liveth" 
(Rom. 7: 1). "But now we are delivered from the law, that 
being dead wherein we were held" (Rom. 7:6). Nothing 
can be clearer. 

But I hasten to add that there is a mere carnal and fleshly 
way of looking at our deliverance from the law, which is 
most unscriptural, and I am persuaded, most dishonoring 
to God. It consists in rejoicing in a supposed deliverance 
fi'om the principle of Divine authority over the life — a de- 
liverance into mere self-will and lawlessness. 

The true ground of rejoicing is quite other than this. The 
truth is, a Christian may get on after a sort under law as a 
rule of life. Not apprehending that the law is anything more 
than an ideal, he feels a kind of pious complacency in "con- 
senting unto the law that it is good," and more or less languidly 
hoping that in the future he may succeed better in keeping 
it than in the past. So treated, the law is wholly robbed of 
its terror. Like a sword carefully fastened in its scabbard, 
the law no longer cuts into the conscience. It is forgotten 
that the law offers absolutely but two alternatives — exact 
obedience, always, in all things, or a curse. There is no third 
voice. "Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things 
which are written in the book of the law to do them" (Gal. 
3:10; James 2:10). The law has but one voice: "What 
things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the 
law ; that every mouth may be stopped and all the world may 



The Grace of God 53 

become guilty before God" (Rom. 3: 19). The law, in other 
words, never says: "Try to do better next time." Of this 
the antinomian legalist seems entirely unaware. 

THE TRUE CHRISTIAN LIFE 

And now we are ready to turn from the negative to the 
positive side to the secret of a holy and victorious walk under 
grace. 

We shall find the principle and the power of that walk 
defined in Galatians 5 : 16-24. The principle of the walk is 
briefly stated: 

"Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfill the lusts of 
the flesh" (5:16). 

The Spirit is shown in Galatians in a threefold way. First, 
He is received by the hearing of faith (3:2). When the 
Galatians believed they received the Spirit. To what end? 
The legalists make little of the Spirit. Though they talk 
much of "power" in connection with the Spirit, it is power 
for service which chiefly occupies them. Of His sovereign 
rights, of His blessed enabling in the inner life, there is 
scant apprehension. But it is precisely there that the Biblical 
emphasis falls. In Romans, for example, the Spirit is not 
even mentioned until we have a justified sinner trying to keep 
the law, utterly defeated in that attempt by the flesh, the 
"law in his members," and crying out, not for help, but for 
deliverance (Rom. 7:15-24). Then the Spirit is brought in 
with, Oh, what marvelous results! "The law of the Spirit 
of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the law of sin 
and death" (Rom. 8:2). Not the Apostle's effort under 
the law, nor even the Spirit's help in that effort, but the 
might of the indwelling Spirit alone, breaks the power of 
indwelling sin (Gal. 5:16-18). 

You ask, and necessarily at this point, what is it to walk 
in the Spirit? The answer is in Gal. 5: 18: "If ye be led of 



54 The Fundamentals 

the Spirit." But how else may we be led of Him save by 
yieldedness to His sway? 

There is a wonderful sensitiveness in the blessed Spirit's 
love. He will not act in and over our lives by way of almighti- 
ness, forcing us into conformity. That is why "yield" is the 
great word of Romans 6, where it is expressly said that we are 
not under the law, but under grace. 

The results of walking in the Spirit are twofold, negative 
and positive. Walking in the Spirit we shall not fulfill the 
lusts of the flesh (Gal. 5: 16). The "flesh" here is the exact 
equivalent of "sin" in Romans 6 : 14, "Sin shall not have 
dominion over you." 

And the reason is immediately given (5: 17). The Spirit 
and the flesh are contrary, and the Spirit is greater and 
mightier than the flesh. Deliverance comes, not by self-effort 
under the law — that is Romans 7 — ^but by the omnipotent 
Spirit, who Himself is contrary to the flesh (Gal. 6:7), and 
who brings the yielded believer into the experience of 
Romans 8. 



CHAPTER IV 

FULFILLED PROPHECY A POTENT ARGUMENT 
FOR THE BIBLE 

BY ARNO C. GAEBELEIN, 
EDITOR "our hope/' NEW YORK CITY. 

"Produce your cause, saith the Lord; bring forth 3'our 
strong reasons, saith the King of Jacob. Let them bring 
them forth, and show us what shall happen; let them show 
the former things, what they be, that we may consider them, 
and know the latter end of them, or declare us things to come. 
Show the things that are to come hereafter, that we may know, 
that ye are gods" (Isa. 41:21-23). "I declare the end from 
the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not 
yet done, saying. My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my 
pleasure" (Isa. 46: 10). 

This is Jehovah's challenge to the idol-gods of Babylon to 
predict future events. He alone can do that. The Lord can 
declare the end from the beginning, and make known things 
that are not yet done. The dumb idols of the heathen know 
nothing concerning the future. They cannot predict what is 
going to happen. And man himself is powerless to know 
future events and cannot find out things to come. 

Jehovah, who has made this challenge and declaration, has 
also fully demonstrated His power to do so. He has done it in 
His holy Word, the Bible. Other nations possess books of a 
religious character, called "sacred books." Not one of them 
contains any predictions concerning the future. If the authors 
of these writings had attempted to foretell the future, they 
would have thereby furnished the strongest evidence of their 
deceptions. The Bible is the only book in the world which con- 
tains predictions. It is pre-eminently that, which no other 

55 



56 The Fundamentals 

book could be, and none other is, a book of prophecy. These 
predictions are declared to be the utterances of Jehovah ; they 
show that the Bible is a supernatural book, the revelation 
of God. 

PROPHECY NEGLECTED AND DENIED 

In view of this fact it is deplorable that the professing 
Church of today almost completely ignores and neglects the 
study of prophecy, a neglect which has for one of its results 
the loss of one of the most powerful weapons against infidelity. 
The denial of the Bible as the inspired Word of God has 
become widespread. 

If prophecy were intelligently studied such a denial could 
not flourish as it does, for the fulfilled predictions of the Bible 
give the clearest and most conclusive evidence that the Bible 
is the revelation of God. To this must be added the fact that 
the destructive Bible criticism, which goes by the name of 
"Higher Criticism," denies the possibility of prophecy. The 
whole reasoning method of this school, which has become so 
popular throughout Christendom, may be reduced to the fol- 
lowing: Prophecy is an imf>ossibility ; there is no such thing 
as foretelling future events. Therefore a book which contains 
predictions of things to come, which were later fulfilled, must 
have been written after the events which are predicted in the 
book. The methods followed by the critics, the attacks made 
by them upon the authenticity of the different books of the 
Bible, especially upon those which contain the most startling 
prophecies (Isaiah and Daniel), we cannot follow at this time. 
They deny everything which the Jewish Synagogue and the 
Christian Church always believed to be prophecy, a super- 
natural unfolding of future events. 

PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE 

The prophecies of the Bible must be first of all divided 
into three classes. I. Prophecies which have found already 



Fulfilled Prophecy a Potent Argument for the Bible 57 

their fulfillment. 2. Prophecies which are now in process of 
fulfillment. Many predictions written several thousand years 
ago are now being accomplished before our eyes. We men- 
tion those which relate to the national and spiritual condition 
of the Jewish people and the predictions concerning the moral 
and religious condition of the present age. 3. Prophecies 
which are still unfulfilled. We have reference to those which 
predict the second, glorious and visible coming of our Lord, 
the re-gathering of Israel and their restoration to the land of 
promise, judgments which will fall upon the nations of the 
earth, the establishment of the Kingdom, the conversion of 
the world, universal peace and righteousness, the deliverance 
of groaning creation, and others. 

These great prophecies of future things are often robbed 
of their literal and solemn meaning by a process of spirituali- 
zation. The visions of the prophets concerning Israel and 
Jerusalem, and the glories to come in a future age, are almost 
generally explained as having their fulfillment in the Church 
during the present age. However, our object is not to follow 
the unfulfilled prophecies, but prophecies fulfilled and in 
process of fulfillment. At the close of our treatise we shall 
point out briefly that in the light of fulfilled prophecies, the 
literal fulfillment of prophecies still future is perfectly assured. 

FULFILLED PROPHECY A VAST THEME 

Fulfilled prophecy is a vast theme of much importance. 
It is equally inspiring and interesting. Volumes could be writ- 
ten to show how hundreds of Divine predictions written in the 
Bible have passed into history. What God announced through 
His chosen instruments has come to pass. History is bearing 
witness to the fact that the events which transpired among 
nations were pre-written in the Bible, even as prophecy is 
nothing less than history written in advance. As much as 
space permits we shall call attention to the fulfilled prophecies 
relating to the person of Qirist; to the Jewish people; and 



^° The Fimda menials 

to a number of nations, whose history, whose rise and down- 
fall, are divinely predicted in the Bible. Furthermore, we 
shall mention the great prophetic unfoldings as given in the 
Book of Daniel, and how many of these predictions have al- 
ready found a most interesting fulfillment. 

MESSIANIC PROPHECIES AND THEIR FULFILLMENT 

The Old Testament contains a most wonderful chain of 
prophecies concerning the person, the life and work of our 
Lord. As He is the center of the whole revelation of God, the 
One upon whom all rests, we turn first of all to a few of the 
prophecies which speak of Him. This also is very necessary. 
The destructive criticism has gone so far as to state that there 
are no predictions at all concerning Christ in the Old Testa- 
ment. Such a denial leads to and is linked with the denial of 
Christ Himself, especially the denial of His Deity and His 
work on the cross. 

To follow the large number of prophecies concerning the 
coming of Christ into the world and the work He was to 
accomplish we cannot attempt in these pages. We point out 
briefly in a general way what must be familiar to most Chris- 
tians who search the Scriptures. Christ is first announced in 
Gen. 3 : 15 to be the seed of the woman, and therefore a human 
being. In Gen. 9 :26-27 the supremacy of Shem is predicted. 
The full revelation of Jehovah God is connected with Shem 
and in due time a son of Shem, Abraham, received the promise 
that the predicted seed was to come from him. (Gen. 12: 8.) 
Messiah was to come from the seed of Abraham. 

Then the fact was revealed that He was to come from 
Isaac and not from Ishmael, from Jacob and not from Esau. 
But Jacob had twelve sons. The Divine prediction pointed to 
Judah and later to the house of David of the tribe of Judah 
from which the Messiah should spring. When we come to 
the prophecies of Isaiah we learn that His mother is to be a 
virgin. (Isa. 7:14.) But the son bom of the virgin is 



Fulfilled Prophecy a Potent Argument for the Bible 59 

Immanuel, God with us. Clearly the prophetic Word in Isaiah 
states that the Messiah would be a child born and a Son given 
with the names, "Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, the 
Everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace" (Isa. 9:6). The 
promised Messiah is to be the seed of a woman, of the seed 
of Abraham, of David, bom of a virgin. He is to be Im- 
manuel, the Son given, God manifested in the flesh. 

This promised Messiah, the Son of David, should appear 
(according to Isa. 11: 1) after the house of David had been 
stripped of its royal dignity and glory. And what more could 
we say of the prophecies which speak of His life, His poverty, 
the works He was to do. His rejection by His own people, the 
Jews. In that matchless chapter in Isaiah, the fifty-third, the 
rejection of Christ by His own nation is predicted. In another 
chapter a still more startling prophecy is recorded: "Then I 
said, I have labored in vain, I have spent my strength for 
naught and in vain." This is Messiah's lament on account of 
His rejection. Then follows the answer, which contains a 
most striking prophecy : "It is a light thing that Thou shouldest 
be My servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob and to restore 
the preserved of Israel: I also will give Thee for a light to 
the Gentiles, that Thou mayest be My salvation unto the ends 
of the earth" (Isa. 49 ; 5, 6). Here the revelation is given that 
He would not alone be rejected by His own nation, but that 
He would also bring salvation to the Gentiles. What human 
mind could have ever invented such a program! The prom- 
ised Messiah of Israel, the longed-for One, is predicted to be 
rejected by His own people and thus becomes the Saviour of 
the despised Gentiles. His sufferings and His death are even 
more minutely predicted. 

In the Book of Psalms the sufferings of Christ, the deep 
agony of His soul, the expressions of His sorrow and His grief, 
are pre-written by the Spirit of God. We mention only one 
Psalm, the twenty-second. His death by crucifixion is prophe- 
sied. Yet death by crucifixion was in David's time an un- 



60 The Fundamentals 

known mode of death. Cruel Rome invented that horrible 
form of death. The cry of the forsaken One is predicted in 
the very words which came from the lips of our Saviour out 
of the darkness which enshrouded the cross. So are also 
predicted the words of mockery by those who looked on; the 
piercing of His hands and feet; the parting of the garments 
and the casting of the lots. In the fifty-third chapter of 
Isaiah, the purpose of His death is so blessedly predicted. He 
was to die the substitute of sinners. There we find also His 
burial and His resurrection predicted. All this was recorded 
700 years before our Lord was born. In the Psalms we find 
the prophecy that the rejected One would occupy a place at 
the right hand of God (Psalm 110: 1). He was to leave the 
earth. David's Son and David's Lord was to have a place in 
the highest glory, even at the right hand of God, to wait there 
till His enemies are made His footstool. It is indeed a won- 
derful chain of prophecies concerning Christ. We could give 
a very few of these predictions. How they all were long ago 
literally fulfilled in the coming, in the life, in the death, in the 
resurrection and ascension of our adorable Lord, all true 
believers know. 

THE JEWISH PEOPLE 

When Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, asked the 
court chaplain for an argument that the Bible is an inspired 
book, he answered, "Your Majesty, the Jews." It was well 
said. To the Jews were committed the oracles of God. (Rom. 
3:2.) These oracles of God, the Holy Scriptures, the Law 
and the Prophets, are filled with a large number of predictions 
relating to their own history. Their unbelief, the rejection of 
the Messiah, the results of that rejection, their dispersion into 
the comers of the earth, so that they would be scattered among 
all the nations, the persecutions and sorrows they were to 
suffer, the curses which were to come upon them, their miracu- 
lous preservation as a nation, their future great tribulation and 



Fulfilled Prophecy a Potent Argument for the Bible 61 

final restoration — all these and much more were over and over 
announced by their own prophets. All the diiferent epochs of 
the remarkable history of Israel were predicted long before 
they were reached. Their sojourn in Egypt and servitude, as 
well as the duration of that period, was announced to Abraham. 
The Babylonian captivity of 70 years and the return of a 
remnant to occupy the land once more was announced by 
the pre-exile prophets, who also predicted a far greater and 
longer exile, their present world-wide dispersion and a return 
which up to 1914 has not yet come. Of the deepest interest 
and the greatest importance in connection with the predic- 
tions of the return from Babylon is the naming of the great 
Persian king through whom the return was to be achieved. 
This great prophecy is found in the Book of Isaiah: "That 
saith of Cyrus, He is My shepherd, and shall perform all My 
pleasure: even saying of Jerusalem, She shall be built; and 
of the temple. Thy foundation shall be laid. Thus saith 
Jehovah to His anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have 
holden, to subdue nations before him; and I will loose the 
loins of kings, to open the doors before him, and the gates shall 
not be shut" (Isa. 44:28; 45: 1). This prediction was made 
about 200 years before Cyrus was born. A careful study of 
the part of Isaiah where these words are found will show 
that they are linked with the challenge of Jehovah and the 
declaration that He knows the end from the beginning; the 
passages we have already quoted. In naming an unborn king 
and showing what his work would be, Jehovah demonstrates 
that He knows the future. The great Jewish historian, 
Josephus, informs us that when Cyrus found his name in the 
Book of Isaiah, written about 200 years before, an earnest 
desire laid hold upon him to fulfill what was written. The 
beginning of the Book of Ezra gives the proclamation of Cyrus 
concerning the temple. 

When the Prophet Isaiah received the message which con- 
tained the name of the Persian king, he wrote it down faith- 



62 The Fundamentals 

fully, though he did not know who Cyrus was. Two centuries 
later Cyrus appeared and then issued his proclamation which 
fulfilled Isaiah's prediction. Higher criticism denies the gen- 
uineness of all this. In order to disprove this prophecy as 
well as others, they declare that Isaiah did not write the book 
which bears his name. For about 2500 years no one ever 
thought of even suggesting that Isaiah is not the author of the 
book. They have invented an unknown person, whom they 
call Deutero-Isaiah, i. e., a second Isaiah. They claim that 
he wrote chapters 40-66. With this they have not stopped. 
They speak now of a third Isaiah, a Trito-Isaiah, as they call 
him. With their supposed learning they claim to have dis- 
covered that some of the chapters of Isaiah were written in 
Babylon and others in Palestine. However, all the arguments, 
advanced by the critics for a composite authorship and against 
one Isaiah who lived and wrote his book at the time specified in 
the beginning of Isaiah, are disproven by the book itself. One 
only needs to study this book to find out the unity of the 
message. One person must be the author of the Book of 
Isaiah. 

A REMARKABLE CHAPTER 

The Pentateuch contains many of the prophecies con- 
cerning the future history of the Jews. One of the most 
remarkable chapters is the twenty-eighth chapter in Deuter- 
onomy. 

It is one of the most solemn chapters in the Pentateuch. 
Orthodox Hebrews read in their synagogues each year through 
the entire five books of Moses. When they read this chapter, 
the Rabbi reads in a subdued voice. And well may they read 
it softly and ponder over it, for here is pre-written the sad and 
sorrowful history of their wonderful nation. Here thousands 
of years ago the Spirit of God through Moses outlined the 
history of the scattered nation, all their suffering and tribula- 
tion, as it has been for well nigh two millenniums and as it is 



Fulfilled Prophecy a Potent Argument for the Bible 63 

still. Here are arguments for the Divine, the supernatural 
origin of this book which no infidel has ever been able to 
answer ; nor will there ever be found an answer. 

It would take many pages to follow the different predic- 
tions and show their literal fulfillment in the nation which 
turned away from Jehovah and disobeyed His Word. 

Apart from such general predictions as are found in verses 
64-66 and fulfilled in the dispersion of Israel, there are others 
which are more minute. The Roman power, which was used 
to break the Jews, is clearly predicted by Moses, and that in a 
time when no such power existed. Read verses 49-50: "The 
Lord shall bring a nation against thee from far, from the end 
of the earth, as swift as the eagle flieth, a nation, whose lan- 
guage thou shalt not understand." The eagle was the standard 
of the Roman armies ; the Jews understood many oriental lan- 
guages, but were ignorant of Latin. "Which shall not regard 
the person of the old, nor show favor to the young." Rome 
killed the old people and the children. "And he shall besiege 
thee in all thy gates, until thy high and fenced walls come 
down, wherein thou trustedst, throughout all thy land" (verse 
52). Fulfilled in the siege and overthrow of Jerusalem by 
the Roman legions. "The tender and delicate woman among 
you, which would not adventure to set the sole of her foot upon 
the ground for delicateness and tenderness, shall eat her chil- 
dren, for want of all things in the siege and straitness where- 
with thine enemy shall distress thee in thy gates" (54-57). 
Fulfilled in the dreadful sieges of Jerusalem, perhaps the most 
terrible events in the history of blood and tears of this poor 
earth. Every verse, beginning with the fifteenth, to the end 
of this chapter has found its oft repeated fulfillment. It does 
not surprise us that the enemy hates this book, which bears such 
a testimony, and would have it classed with legends. 

Of much interest is the last verse of this great prophetic 
chapter. "And Jehovah will bring thee into Egypt again with 
ships, by the way whereof I said unto thee. Thou shalt see it 



64 The Fundamentals 

no more again; and there ye shall sell yourselves unto your 
enemies for bondmen and bondwomen, and no man shall buy 
you." When Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans, all 
who did not die in the awful calamity were sent to the mines 
of Egypt, where the slaves were constantly kept at work with- 
out being permitted to rest or sleep till they succumbed. The 
whip of Egypt fell once more upon them and they suffered 
the most terrible agonies. Others were sold as slaves. Ac- 
cording to Josephus, about 100,000 were made slaves so that 
the markets were glutted and the word fulfilled, "No man shall 
buy you." 

THEIR DISPERSION AND PRESERVATION 

When Balaam beheld the camp of Israel he uttered a 
prophecy which is still being fulfilled. "Lo, the people shall 
dwell alone and shall not be reckoned among the nations" 
(Num. 23:9). God had separated the nation and given to 
them a land. And this peculiar people, living in one of the 
smallest countries of the earth, has been scattered throughout 
the world, has become a wanderer, without a home, without a 
land. Like Cain they wander from nation to nation. Though 
without a land they are still a nation. Other nations have 
passed away ; the Jewish nation has been preserved. They are 
among all the nations and yet not reckoned among the nations. 
All this is written beforehand in the Bible. "And you will I 
scatter among the nations, and^ I will draw out the sword after 
you : and your land shall be a desolation and your cities shall 
be a waste" (Lev. 26:33). "And Jehovah will scatter you 
among the people, and ye shall be left few in number among 
the nations, whither Jehovah shall lead you away" (Deut. 
4:27). "And Jehovah will scatter you among all peoples, 
from the one end of the earth even unto the other end of the 
earth ; and there thou shalt serve other gods, which thou hast 
not known, thou nor thy fathers, even wood and stone. And 
among these nations shalt thou find no ease, and there shall 



Fulfilled Prophecy a Potent Argument for the Bible 65 

be no rest for the sole of thy foot ; but Jehovah will give thee 
there a trembling heart, and failing of eyes, and pining of soul. 
And thy life shall hang in doubt before thee; and thou shalt 
fear night and day, and shalt have no assurance of thy life. 
In the morning thou shalt say. Would it were even! and at 
even thou shalt say. Would it were morning! for the fear 
of thy heart which thou shalt fear, and for the sight of thine 
eyes, which thou shalt see" (Deut. 28:64-67). "And yet for 
all that, when they be in the land of their enemies, I will not 
reject them, neither will I abhor them, to destroy them utterly, 
and to break My covenant with them ; for I am Jehovah their 
God" (Lev. 26:44). In many other passages the Spirit of 
God predicts their miraculous preservation. 

"Massacred by thousands, yet springing up again from their 
undying stock, the Jews appear at all times and in all regions. 
Their perpetuity, their national immortality, is at once the 
most curious problem to the political inquirer ; to the religious 
man a subject of profound and awful admiration."* Herder 
called the Jews "the enigma of history". What human mind 
could have ever foreseen that this peculiar people, dwelling in 
a peculiar land, was to be scattered among all nations, suffer 
there as no other nation ever suffered, and yet be kept and 
thus marked out still as the covenant people of a God, whose 
gifts and callings are without repentance. Here indeed is an 
argument for the Word of God which no infidel can answer. 
Jehovah has predicted the history of His earthly people. 
"Though I make a full end of all nations whither I have scat- 
tered thee, yet will I not make a full end of thee" (Jer. 30: 11). 

I'HE LAND AND THE CITY 

Palestine, the God-given home of Israel, the land which 
once flowed with milk and honey, has become barren and 
desolate. Jerusalem, once a great city, the hallowed city of 



*Milman: "History of the Jews.'' 



66 The Fundamentals 

David, is trodden down by the Gentiles. All this is more 
than once predicted in the Word of Prophecy. "I will make 
thee a wilderness, and cities which are not inhabited. And I will 
prepare destroyers against thee, every one with his weapons; 
and they shall cut down thy choice cedars, and cast them into 
the fire. And many nations shall pass by this city, and they 
shall say every man to his neighbor. Wherefore has the Lord 
done thus unto this great city? Then they shall answer, Be- 
cause they have forsaken the covenant of the Lord their God, 
and worshipped other gods and served them" (Jer. 22:7-9). 
"And the generation to come, your children that shall rise up 
after you, and the foreigner that shall come from a far land 
shall say, when they shall see the plagues of that land 
even all the nations shall say, Wherefore hath Jehovah done 
thus unto this land, what meaneth the heat of this great anger?" 
(Deut. 29:22-25.) 

Thus it has come to pass. Their land is being visited by 
Gentiles from all over the world who behold the desolations. 
Many other passages could be added to the above — passages 
which prophesied the very condition of the promised land and 
the city of Jerusalem which are found there now, and which 
have existed for nearly two thousand years. 

The national rejection of Israel and the fulfillment of the 
threatened curses have come to pass, and the land in its barren 
condition witnesses to it. Even the duration of all this is 
indicated in the prophetic Word. There is a striking passage 
in Hosea. "I will go and return to My place, till they ac- 
knowledge their ofifence and seek My face; in their affliction 
they will seek Me early. Come, let us return unto the Lord ; 
for He hath torn, and He will heal us ; He hath smitten and He 
will bind us up. After two days will He revive us; in the 
third day He will raise us up, and we shall live in His sight" 
(Hos. 5: 15 — 6: 2). According to this prophecy Jehovah is to 
be in their midst and is to return to His place. It refers to 
the manifestation of the Lord Jesus Christ among His people. 



Fulfilled Prophecy a Potent Argument for the Bible 67 

They rejected Him; He returned to His place. They are to 
acknowledge their offence. 

Elsewhere in the Word predictions are found which speak 
of a future national repentance of Israel when the remnant 
of that nation will confess the blood-guiltiness which is upon 
them. According to this word in Hosea, they are going to have 
affliction, and when that great afiSiction comes they will seek 
His face, and confess their sins, and express their trust in 
Jehovah. They acknowledge that for two days they were 
torn and smitten by the judgments of the Lord, afflicted, as 
predicted by their own prophets. A third day is coming when 
all will be changed. These days are prophetic days. Several 
ancient Jewish expositors mention the fact that these days 
stand each for a thousand years. The two days of affliction 
and dispersion would therefore stand for two thousand years, 
and they are almost expired. The third day would mean the 
day of the Lord, the thousand years of the kingdom to come. 

Nor must we forget that our Lord Jesus Christ, too, pre- 
dicted the great dispersion of the nation, the fall of Jerusalem, 
and that Gentiles were to rule over that city, till the times of 
the Gentiles are fulfilled. (Luke 21 : 10-24.) 

NO GOVERNMENT, NO SACRIFICE, NO HOLY PLACE 

"For the children of Israel shall abide many days without 
a king, and without a prince, and without a sacrifice, and 
without an image, and without an ephod, and without tera- 
phim" (Hos. 3:4). No further comment is needed on this 
striking prediction. Their political and religious condition for 
1900 years corresponds to every word given through Hosea 
the prophet. 

PROPHECIES ABOUT OTHER NATIONS 

Besides the many predictions concerning the people Israel, 
the prophets have much to say about the nations with whom 
Israel came in touch and whose history is bound up with the 



68 The Fundamentals 

history of the chosen people of God. Babylonia, Assyria, 
Egypt, Ammon, Moab, Tyre, Sidon, Idumea, and others are 
mentioned in the Prophetic Word. Their ultimate fate was 
predicted by Jehovah long before their downfall and overthrow 
occurred. The Prophet Ezekiel was entrusted with many of 
the solemn messages announcing the judgment of these nations. 
The reader will find these predictions in chapters 25-37. The 
predictions concerning Ammon, Moab, Edom and the Philis- 
tines are recorded in the twenty-fifth chapter. Tyrus and its 
fall is the subject of chapters 26 to 28: 19. A prophecy about 
Sidon is found in the concluding verses of the twenty-eighth 
chapter. The prophecies concerning the judgment and degra- 
dation of Egypt are given at greater length in chapters 29 and 
30. Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Amos, Obadiah, Micah, Nahum 
and Habakkuk, all contain prophecies concerning different na- 
tions foretelling what should happen to them. A mass of 
evidence can be produced to show that all these predictions 
came true. Many of them seemed to fail, but after centuries 
had passed, their literal fulfillment, even to the minutest detail, 
had become history. 

We must confine ourselves to a very few of these predic- 
tions and their fulfillment. The siege and capture of the pow- 
erful and extremely wealthy city of Tyrus by Nebuchadnezzar, 
king of Babylon, is predicted in Ezek. 26 : 7-11. It came literally 
to pass. One of the proofs is to be found in a contract tablet 
in the British Museum dated at Tyrus in the fortieth year of 
the king. The overthrow predicted by Ezekiel had come to 
pass. The walls were broken down and the city was ruined. 
The noise of the song ceased and the sound of the harps was 
no more heard. But not all that Ezekiel predicted had been 
fulfilled by the Babylonian conqueror. The Divine predic- 
tion states, "They shall lay thy stones and thy timber and thy 
dust in the midst of the water" (verse 12). Nebuchadnezzar 
had not done this. History acquaints us with the fact that 
the Tyrians, before the destruction of the city had come, had 



Fulfilled Prophecy a Potent Argument for the Bible 69 

removed their treasures to an island about half a mile from 
the shore. About 250 years later Alexander came against the 
island city. The ruins of Tyre which Nebuchadnezzar had left 
standing were used by Alexander. He constructed out of them 
with great ingenuity and perseverance a dam from the main- 
land to the rock city in the sea. Thus literally it was fulfilled, 
"They shall lay thy stones and thy timber and thy dust in the 
midst of the water." The sentence pronounced upon that 
proud city, for so long the powerful mistress of the sea, "Thou 
shalt be built no more," has been fully carried out. 

Of still greater interest are the prophecies which foretell 
the doom of Egypt. Ezekiel and Nahum mention the Egyp- 
tian city No. (Ezek. 30:14-16; Nah. 3:8.) No is Thebes 
and was the ancient capital of Egypt. The Egyptian name is 
No-Amon. It had a hundred gates, as we learn from Homer, 
and was a city of marvelous beauty. It was surrounded by 
walls twenty-four feet thick, and had a circumference of one 
mile and three quarters. The Lord announced through Ezekiel 
that this great city should be rent asunder and that its vast 
population should be cut off. Five hundred years later Pto- 
lemy Laltyrus, the grandfather of Cleopatra, after besieging 
the city several years razed to the ground the previously ruined 
city. Every word given through Ezekiel had come true. One 
could fill many pages showing the literal fulfillment of Ezekiel's 
great predictions relating to Egypt. The decline and degrada- 
tion predicted has come true. The rivers and canals of Egypt 
have dried up. The land has become desolate. The immense 
fisheries which yielded such a great income to the rulers of 
Egypt are no longer in existence. Ezek. 30 : 7 has found a 
literal fulfillment. Egypt is a land of ruins and wasted cities. 
The instruments whom God used in accomplishing this were 
strangers (Ezek. 30:12) like Cambyses, Amroo, Ochus and 
others. "There shall be no more a prince of the land of 
Egypt" (Ezek. 30: 13). This too has been literally fulfilled. 
Ochus subdued rebellious Egypt 350 B. C, and since that 



70 The Fundamentals 

time no native prince has ruled in Egypt. It is also written 
that Egypt should become the basest of the kingdoms, "Neither 
shall it exalt itself any more above the nations; for I will 
diminish them that they shall no more rule over the nations." 
This degradation has fully come to pass. Who would ever 
have thought that this magnificent country with its vast re- 
sources, its wonderful commerce, its great prosperity, its lux- 
uries, the land of marvelous structures, could ever experience 
such a downfall! Another significant fact is that in spite of 
the great humiliation and degradation through which Egypt 
has passed for so many centuries, it is not to experience a 
total extinction. In this respect her fate differs from that of 
other nations, "They shall be there a base kingdom" (Ezek. 
29 : 14) ; this is the condition of Egypt today. And other 
prophets announce the same fact. One of the earliest prophets 
is Joel. He prophesied between 860 and 850 B. C. He pre- 
dicted at that early date, "Egypt shall be a desolation." Isaiah 
also foretells the awful judgment of this great land of ancient 
culture. In the light of unfulfilled prophecy we discover the 
reason why God has not permitted the complete extinction of 
Egypt. Egypt is yet to be lifted out of the dust and is to receive 
a place of blessing only second to that of Israel (Isa. 19:22- 
25). This will be fulfilled when our Lord comes again. 

And what more could we say of Idumea, Babylonia, As- 
syria and other lands. Moab and Ammon, the enemies of 
Israel, once flourishing nations, have passed away and the 
numerous judgment predictions have come true. (See Jer. 
48-49.) Edom is gone. "O thou that dwellest in the clefts of 
the rock, that boldest the height of the hill, though thou 
shouldest make thy nest as high as the eagle, I will bring thee 
down from thence, saith Jehovah" (Jer. 49: 16). "Thou shalt 
be desolate, O Mount Seir, and all Idumea, even all of it" 
(Ezek. 35:15). It was an atheist who was first used to 
report that during a journey of eight days he had found in 
the territory of Idumea the ruins of thirty cities. 



Fulfilled Prophecy a Potent Argument for the Bible 71 

Babylonia and Assyria, once the granaries of Asia, the 
garden spots of that continent, enjoying a great civilization, 
are now in desolation and mostly unproductive deserts. The 
predictions of Isaiah and Jeremiah have been fulfilled. The 
judgments predicted to come upon Babylon were also fulfilled 
long ago.* 

THE BOOK OF DANIEL 

The Book of Daniel, however, supplies the most startling 
evidences of fulfilled prophecy. No other book has been so 
much attacked as this great book. For about two thousand 
years wicked men, heathen philosophers, and infidels have tried 
to break down its authority. It has proven to be the anvil 
upon which the critics' hammers have been broken to pieces. 
The Book of Daniel has survived all attacks. It has been 
denied that Daniel wrote the book during the Babylonian cap- 
tivity. The critics claim that it was written during the time 
of the Maccabees. Kuenen, Wellhausen, Canon Farrar, Driv- 
er and others but repeat the statements of the assailant of 
Christianity of the third century, the heathen Porphyry, who 
contended that the Book of Daniel was a forgery. Such is 
the company in which the higher critics are found. The Book 
of Daniel has been completely vindicated. The prophet wrote 
the book and its magnificent prophecies in Babylon. All doubt 
as to that has been forever removed, and men who still repeat 
the infidel oppositions against the book, oppositions of a past 



*"How utterly improbable it must have sounded to the contem- 
poraries of Isaiah and Jeremiah, that the great Babylon, this oldest 
metropolis of the world, founded by Nimrod, planned to be a city on 
the Euphrates much larger than Paris of today, surrounded by walls 
four hundred feet high, on the top of which four chariots, each drawn 
by four horses, could be driven side by side; in the center a large, 
magnificent park an hour's walk in circumference, watered by ma- 
chinery; in it the king's twelve palaces, surrounding the great temple 
of the sun-god with its six hundred-foot tower and its gigantic golden 
statue — should be converted into a heap of ruins in the midst of a 
desert ! Who today would have any faith in a similar prophecy against 
Berlin or London or Paris or New York?" (Prof. Bettex.> 



72 The Fundamentals 

generation, must be branded as ignorant, or considered the will- 
ful enemies of the Bible. 

Nebuchadnezzar's great dream 

The great dream of Nebuchadnezzar is recorded in the 
second chapter of the Book of Daniel. Nebuchadnezzar who 
had been constituted by Jehovah a great monarch over the 
earth ( Jer. 27 : 5-9) desired to know the future. All his 
astrologers and soothsayers, his magicians and mediums, could 
not do that. Their predictions left him still in doubt (Dan. 
2:29). God gave him then a dream which contained a most 
remarkable revelation. The great man-image the king beheld 
is the symbol of the great world empires which were to follow 
the Babylonian empire. The image had a head of gold; the 
chest and arms were of silver; the trunk and the thighs were 
of brass ; the two legs of iron, and the two feet were composed 
of iron mixed with clay. The Lord made known through the 
prophet the meaning of this dream. 

Nebuchadnezzar and the empire over which he ruled is 
symbolized by the golden head. An inferior kingdom was 
to come after the Babylonian Empire; its synjbol is silver. 
This kingdom was to be followed by a third kingdom of brass 
to bear rule over all the earth. The fourth kingdom was to 
be strong as iron and was to subdue all things. Exactly three 
great world powers came after the Babylonian Empire, the 
Medo-Persian, the Graeco-Macedonian and the Roman. In- 
teresting it is to learn, from the different metals of which the 
image was composed, the process of deterioration which was 
to characterize the successive monarchies. The fourth empire, 
the Roman world power, is seen in its historic division, in- 
dicated by the two legs. The empire consisted of two parts, 
the East and West Roman sections. Then the division of 
the Empire into kingdoms in which iron (monarchical form 
of government) and the clay (the rule of the people) should 
be present is also predicted. How all this has come to pass is 



Fulfilled Prophecy a Potent Argument for the Bible 73 

too well known to need any further demonstration. These 
empires have come and gone and the territory of the old 
Roman Empire presents today the very condition as pre- 
dicted in Nebuchadnezzar's dream. Monarchies and republics 
are in existence upon that territory. The final division into 
ten kingdoms has not yet been accomplished. The unfulfilled 
portion of this dream we do not follow here. The reader may 
find this explained in the author's exposition of Daniel. 

DANIEL^S GREAT VISION OF THE WORLD POWERS 

In the seventh chapter Daniel relates his first great vision. 
The four beasts he saw rising out of the sea, the type of 
nations, are symbolical of the same world powers. The lion 
with eagle's wings is Babylonia. Jeremiah also pictured 
Nebuchadnezzar as a lion. "The lion has come up from his 
thicket and the destroyer of the Gentiles is on his way" (Jer. 
4:7). Ezekiel speaks of him as a great eagle. (Ezek. 17: 3.) 
The Medo-Persian Empire is seen as a bear raised up on one 
side and having three ribs in its mouth. The one side appeared 
stronger because this second world empire had Persia for its 
stronger element. The three ribs the bear holds as prey 
predict the conquests of that empire. Medo-Persia conquered 
exactly three great provinces, Susiana, Lydia and Asia Minor. 
The leopard with four wings and four heads is the picture 
of the Graeco-Macedonian Empire. The four wings denote 
its swiftness and rapid advance so abundantly fulfilled in 
the conquests of Alexander the Great. The four heads of 
the leopard predict the partition of this empire into the king- 
doms of Syria, Egypt, Macedonia and Asia . Minor. The 
fourth beast, the great nondescript, with its ten horns, and 
the little horn, still to come, is the Roman Empire. These 
are wonderful things. Be it remembered that the prophet re- 
ceived the vision when the Babylonian Empire still existed. 
Here also the character of these empires typified by ferocious 
beasts is revealed. The great nations of Christendom which 



74 The Fundamentals 

occupy the ground of the Roman Empire testify unconsciously 
to the truth of this great prophecy. The emblems of these na- 
tions are not doves, little lambs or other harmless creatures. 
They have chosen the lion, the bear, the unicorn, the eagle and 
the double-headed eagle. 

ALEXANDER THE GREAT PREDICTED 

In the eighth chapter a new prophecy is revealed through 
Daniel. Once more the Medo-Persian Empire is seen, this 
time under the figure of a ram with two horns, one higher than 
the other, and the higher one came up last. It foretells the 
composition of that empire. It was composed of the Medes 
and the Persians; the Persians came in last and were the 
strongest It conquered in three directions. This corresponds 
to the bear with the three ribs in the previous chapter. 

The he-goat which Daniel sees coming from the west with 
a great rush is the type of the leopard empire, the Graeco- 
Macedonian. The same swiftness as revealed in the leopard 
with four wings is seen here again. The notable horn upon 
the he-goat, symbolizing the Macedonian Empire, is Alexander 
the Great. Josephus tells us that Alexander was greatly moved 
when the Jewish high priest Jaddua acquainted him with the 
meaning of this prophecy written over two hundred years 
before. And how was it fulfilled, what is predicted in Dan. 
8:5-8? 334 B. C. the notable horn, Alexander, in goat-like 
fashion, leaped across the Hellespont and fought successful, 
battles, then pushed on to the banks of the Indus and the Nile 
and from there to Shushan. The great battles of the Granicus 
(334 B. C), Issus (333 B. C), and Arbella (331 B. C.) were 
fought, and with irresistible force he stamped the power of 
Persia and its king, Darius Codomannus, to the ground. He 
conquered rapidly Syria, Phoenicia, Cyprus, Pyre, Gaza, Egypt, 
Babylonia, Persia. In 329 he conquered Bactria, crossed the 
Oxus and Jaxaitis and defeated the Scythians. And thus he 
stamped upon the ram after having broken its horns. But 



Fulfilled Prophecy a Potent Argument for the Bible 75 

when the he-goat had waxed very great, the great horn was 
broken. This predicted the early and sudden death of Alex- 
ander the Great. He died after a reign of 12 years and eight 
months, after a career of drunkenness and debauchery in 323 
B. C. He died when he was but 32 years old. Then four 
notable ones sprang up in the place of the broken horn. This 
too has been fulfilled, for the empire of Alexander was divided 
into four parts. Four of the great generals of Alexander made 
the division, namely, Cassander, Lysimachus, Seleucus and 
Ptolemy. The four great divisions were Syria, Egypt, Mace- 
donia, and Asia Minor. 

ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANES 

In verses 19 to 24 of the eighth chapter of Daniel the com- 
ing of a wicked leader, to spring out of one of the divisions 
of the Macedonian Empire and the vile work he was to do, 
is predicted. He was to work great havoc in the pleasant land, 
that is, Israel's land. 

History does not leave us in doubt about the identity of 
this wicked king. He is the eighth king of the Seleucid 
dynasty, who took the Syrian throne and is known by the 
name of Antiochus Epiphanes, and bore also the name of 
Epimanes, i. e., "the Madman." He was the tyrant and op- 
pressor of the Jews. His wicked deeds of oppression, blas- 
phemy and sacrilege are fully described in the Book of the 
Maccabees. Long before he ever appeared Daniel saw him 
and his wicked work in his vision. 

And all this has been fulfilled in Antiochus Epiphanes. 
When he had conquered Jerusalem he sacrificed a sow upon 
the altar of burnt offerings and sprinkled its broth over the 
entire building. He corrupted the youths of Jerusalem by 
introducing lewd practices ; the feast of tabernacles he changed 
into the feast of Bacchus. He auctioned off the high-priest- 
hood. All kinds of infamies were perpetrated by him and the 
most awful obscenity permitted and encouraged. All true 



76 The Fundamentals 

worship was forbidden, and idol worship introduced, especially 
that of Jupiter Olympus. The whole city and land was dev- 
astated and some 100,000 pious Jews were massacred. Such 
has been the remarkable fulfillment of this prophecy. 

Even the duration of this time of trouble was revealed ; and 
2,300 days are mentioned. These 2,300 days cover about the 
period of time during which Antiochus Epiphanes did his wick- 
ed deeds. The chronology of these 2,300 days is interesting. 
Judas Maccabaeus cleansed (lit. justified) the sanctuary from 
the abomination about December 25, 165 B. C. Antiochus died 
a miserable death two years later. Going back 2,300 days from 
the time Judas the Maccabean cleansed the defiled temple, 
brings us to 171 B. C. when we find the record of Antiochus' 
interference with the Jews. Menelaus had bribed Antiochus 
to make him high priest, robbed the temple and instituted the 
murder of the high priest Onias III. The most wicked deeds 
in the defilement of the temple were perpetrated by the leading 
general of Antiochus, Apollonius, in the year 168 B. C. We 
believe these 2,300 days are therefore literal days and have 
found their literal fulfillment in the dreadful days of this 
wicked king from the North. There is no other meaning 
attached to these days and the foolish speculations that these 
days are years, etc., lack Scriptural foundation altogether. 

THE GREATEST OF ALL 

The greatest prophecy in the Book of Daniel is contained 
in the ninth chapter, the prophecy concerning the 70 weeks, 
transmitted from heaven through Gabriel. (Dan. 9:24-27.) 
To many readers of the Book of Daniel it is not quite clear 
what the expression "seventy weeks" means, and when it is 
stated that each week represents a period of seven years, many 
Christians do not know why such is the case. A brief word of 
explanation may therefore be in order. The literal transla- 
tion of the term "seventy weeks" is "seventy sevens." Now 
this word "sevens" translated "weeks" may mean "days" and 



Fulfilled Prophecy a Potent Argument for the Bible 77 

it may mean "years." What then is meant here, seventy times 
seven days or seventy times seven years? It is evident that 
the "sevens" mean year weeks, seven years to each prophetic 
week. Daniel was occupied in reading the books and in prayer 
with the seventy years of the Babylonian captivity. And now 
Gabriel is going to reveal to him something which will take 
place in "seventy sevens," which means seventy times seven 
years. The proof that such is the case is furnished by the 
fulfillment of the prophecy itself. 

First we notice in the prophecy that these 70 year- weeks are 
divided in three parts. Seven times seven (49 years) are 
to go by till the commanded rebuilding and restoration of 
Jerusalem should be accomplished. In the twentieth year of 
Artaxerxes the command was given to rebuild Jerusalem. It 
was in the year 445 B. C, exactly 49 years after the wall of 
Jerusalehi and the city had been rebuilt. Then 62 weeks 
are given as the time when Messiah should be cut off and have 
nothing. This gives us 434 years (62 times 7). Here is a 
prediction concerning the death of Christ. Has it been ful- 
filled? Chronology shows that exactly 483 years after Arta- 
xerxes gave the command to restore Jerusalem (445 B. C), 
434 years after the city had been restored, the death of our 
Lord Jesus Christ took place. 

To be more exact, on the day on which our Lord Jesus 
Christ entered Jerusalem for the last time, the number of 
years announced by Gabriel expired and the Lord was crucified 
that week. The proof of it is perfect. 

But there is more to be said. As a result of the cutting 
off of Messiah something else is prophesied. "And the people 
of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the 
sanctuary." The prince that is to come (and is yet to come) 
is the little horn of Dan. 7. He arises out of the Roman 
Empire. The people of the prince that shall come are there- 
fore the Roman people. They have fulfilled this prophecy by 
destroying the temple and the city. 



78 



The Fundamentals 



THE WARS OF THE PTOLEMIES AND SELEUCIDAE 

The greater part of the eleventh chapter in Daniel has 
been historically fulfilled. It is an interesting study. So ac- 
curate are the predictions that the enemies of the Bible have 
tried their very best to show that Daniel did not write these 
prophecies several hundred years before they occurred. But 
they have failed in their miserable attempts. We place the 
startling evidence before our readers. 



PROPHECY GIVEN B. C. 534 

"And now will I shew thee the 
truth. Behold, there shall stand 
up yet three kings in Persia; and 
the fourth shall be far richer than 
they all : and by his strength 
through his riches he shall stir up 
all against the realm of Grecia." 
(Verse 2) 



"And a mighty king shall stand 
up, that shall rule with great do- 
minion, and do according to his 
will." (Verse 3.) 



"And when he shall stand up, 
his kingdom shall be broken, and 
shall be divided toward the four 
winds of heaven ; and not to his 
posterity, nor according to his do- 
minion which he ruled : for his 
kingdom shall be plucked up even 
for others besides those." (Verse 
4.) 



"And the king of the South 
shall be strong, and one of his 



FULFILLMENT 

See Ezra 4. S-24. The three 
kings were: Ahasuerus, Artaxer- 
XC3 and Darius, known in history 
as Cambyses, Pseudo Smerdis, and 
Darius Hystaspis (not Darius the 
Mede). The fourth one was 
Xerxes, who, as history tells us, 
was immensely rich. The invasion 
of Greece took place in 480 b. c. 

The successors of Xerxes are 
not mentioned. The mighty king 
in this verse is the notable horn 
seen by Daniel on the he-goat in 
chapter 8, Alexander the Great, 
335 B. c. 

B. C. 323. Alexander died young. 
The notable horn was broken. His 
kingdom was divided into four 
parts (four winds) after the bat- 
tle of Ipsus 301 B. c. His posterity 
did not receive the kingdom, but 
his four generals, Ptolemy, Ly- 
simachus, Seleucus Nicator and 
Cassander. Not one of these divi- 
sions reached to the glory of 
Alexander's dominion. 

Asia and Greece are not fol- 
lowed but Syria and Egypt become 



Fulfilled Prophecy a Potent Argument for the Bible 79 



PROPHECY GIVEN B. C. 534 

princes; and he shall be strong 
above him, and have dominion ; 
his dominion shall be a great do- 
minion." (Verse S.) 



"And in the end of years they 
shall join themselves together; 
for the king's daughter of the 
South shall come to the King of 
the North to make an agreement; 
but she shall not retain the power 
of the arm ; neither shall he stand, 
nor his arm : but she shall be given 
up, and they that brought her, and 
he that begat her, and he that 
strengthened her in these times." 
(Verse 6.) 



"But out of a branch of her 
roots shall one stand up in his 
estate, which shall come with an 
army, and shall enter into the 
fortress of the King of the North, 
and shall deal against them, and 
shall prevail." (Verse 7.) 



FULFILLMENT 

prominent, because the King of the 
North from Syria, and the King 
of the South, Egypt, were to come 
in touch with the Jews. The holy 
land became involved with both. 
The King of the South was Ptol- 
emy Lagus. One of his princes 
was Seleucus Nicator. He estab- 
lished a great dominion, which ex- 
tended to the Indus. 

Here is another gap. This verse 
takes us to 250 b. c. The two who 
make an alliance are the Kings of 
the North (Syrian division of the 
Grecian Empire) and of the South 
(Egypt). This alliance was ef- 
fected by the marriage of the 
daughter of the King of the South, 
the Egyptian Princess Berenice, 
daughter of Ptolemy H., to An- 
tiochus Theos, the King of the 
North. The agreement was that 
Antiochus had to divorce his wife 
and make any child of Berenice 
his heir in the kingdom. The 
agreement ended in calamity. 
When Ptolemy died Antiochus 
Theos in 247 called back his for- 
mer wife. Berenice and her 
young son were poisoned and the 
first wife's son, Callinicus, was 
put on the throne as Seleucus II. 

The one out of her roots (Bere- 
nice, who had been murdered) 
was her own brother, Ptolemy 
Euergetes, who avenged her death. 
He conquered Syria. He dealt 
against Seleucus II, King of the 
North, and slew the wife of An- 



80 



The Fundamentals 



PROPHECY GIVEN B. C. 534 



"And shall also carry captives 
into Egypt their gods, with their 
princes, and with their precious 
vessels of silver and gold; and he 
shall continue more years than 
the King of the North." (Verse 
8.) 

"So the King of the South shall 
come into his kingdom, and shall 
return into his own land." (Verse 
9.) 

(Literal translation) : "and the 
same [King of the North] shall 
come into the realm of the King 
of the South, but shall return into 
his own land." 

"But his sons shall be stirred 
up, and shall assemble a multitude 
of great forces ; and one shall cer- 
tainly come, and overflow, and 
pass through : then shall he re- 
turn, and be stirred up, even to 
his fortress." (Verse 10.) 



"And the King of the South 
shall be moved with choler, and 
shall come forth and fight with 
him, even with the King of the 
North: and he shall set forth a 
great multitude but the multitude 
shall be given into his hand." 
(Verse 11.) 



FULFIIXMENT 

tiochus Theos, who had Berenice 
poisoned. He seized the fortress, 
the port of Antioch. 

Ptolemy Euergetes did exactly 
as predicted. He returned with 
4,000 talents of gold and 40,000 
talents of silver and 2,500 idols 
and idolatrous vessels. Many of 
these Carabyses had taken to Per- 



In 240 B. c. Seleucus Callinicus 
the King of the North invaded 
Egypt. He had to return defeated. 
His fleet perished in a storm. 



The sons of Seleucus Callinicus 
were Seleucus HI and Antiochus 
the Great. Seleucus (Ceraunos) 
III began war against Egyptian 
Provinces in Asia ^^inor. He was 
unsuccessful. The other son An- 
tioch invaded Egypt and passed 
through because Ptolemy Philo- 
pater did not oppose him. In 218 
B. c. Antiochus continued his war- 
fare and took the fortress Gaza. 

In 217 B. c. Ptolemy aroused 
himself and fought Antiochus the 
Great with an immense army. He 
defeated Antiochus. The multi- 
tude was given into the hands of 
Ptolemy Philopater. 



Fulfilled Prophecy a Potent Argument for the Bible 81 



PROPHECY GIVEN B. C. 534 

"And when he hath taken away 
the multitude, his heart shall be 
lifted up; and he shall cast 
down many ten thousands : but he 
shall not be strengthened by it." 
(Verse 12.) 

(Literal: "And the multitude 
shall rise up and his courage in- 
crease.") 

"For the King of the North 
shall return, and shall set forth 
a multitude greater than the for- 
mer, and shall certainly come 
after certain years with a great 
army and with much riches." 
(Verse 13.) 

"And in those times there shall 
many stand up against the King 
of the South : also the robbers of 
thy people shall exalt themselves 
to establish the vision ; but they 
shall fall." (Verse 14.) 



"So the King of the North shall 
come, and cast up a mount, and 
take the most fenced cities : and 
the arms of the South shall not 
withstand, neither his chosen peo- 
ple, neither shall there be any 
strength to withstand." (Verse 
IS.) 

"But he that cometh against him 
shall do according to his own 
will, and none shall stand before 
him : and he shall stand in the 



FULFILLMENT 

The people of Egypt rose up 
and the weakling Ptolemy became 
courageous. His victory is again 
referred to. It was won at Ra- 
phia. He might have pressed his 
victory. But he did not make use 
of it but gave himself up to a li- 
centious life. Thus "he was not 
strengthened by it." 

About 14 years later, 203 b. c, 
Antiochus assembled a great army, 
greater than the army which was 
defeated at Raphia, and turned 
against Egypt. Ptolemy Philo- 
pater had died and left an infant 
son Ptolemy Epiphanes. 

Antiochus had for his ally 
Philip, King of Macedon. Also 
in Egypt many rebels stood up. 
And then there were, as we read 
in Josephus, wicked Jews, who 
helped Antiochus. These "robbers 
of thy people" established the 
vision. They helped along the 
very things which had been pre- 
dicted, as to trials for them. 

All this was fulfilled in the 
severe struggles, which followed. 



The invasion of the glorious 
•land by Antiochus followed. He 
subjected the whole land unto 
himself. He also was well dis- 



82 



The Fundamentals 



PROPHECY GIVEN B. C. 534 



FULFILLMENT 



glorious land, which by his hand posed towards the Jews because 
shall be consumed." (Verse 16.) they sided with Antiochus the 

Great against Ptolemy Epiphanes. 



"He shall also set his face to 
enter with the strength of his 
whole kingdom, and an agreement 
shall be made with him ; thus shall 
he do : and he shall give him the 
daughter of women, corrupting 
her: but she shall not stand on 
his side, neither be for him." 
(Verse 17.) 



"After this shall he turn his 
face unto the isles, and shall take 
many : but a prince [literally : Cap- 
tain] for his own behalf shall 
cause the reproach offered by him 
to cease ; without his own reproach 
he shall cause it to turn upon 
him." (Verse 18.) 

"Then he shall turn his face 
toward the fort of his own land: 
but he shall stumble and fall, and 
not be found." (Verse 19.) 

"Then shall stand up in his 
estate a raiser of taxes in the 
glory of the kingdom : but within 
few days he shall be destroyed, 
neither in anger, nor in battle." 
(Verse 20.) 



This brings us to the years IPS- 
IPS B. c. Antiochus aimed to get 
full possession of Egypt. An 
agreement was made. In this 
treaty between Antiochus and 
Ptolemy Epiphanes, Cleopatra, 
daughter of Antiochus was es- 
poused to Ptolemy. Why is 
Cleopatra called "daughter of 
women?" Because she was very 
young and was under the care of 
her mother and grandmother. The 
treaty failed. 

A few years later Antiochus 
conquered isles on the coast of 
Asia Minor. 

The captain predicted is Scipio 
Asiaticus. Antiochus had re- 
proached the Romans by his acts 
and he was defeated. This defeat 
took place at Magnesia 190 b. c. 

Antiochus returns to his own 
land. He came to a miserable end 
trying to plunder the temple of 
Belus in Elymais. 

This is Seleucus Philopater b. c. 
187-176. He was known as a 
raiser of taxes. He had an evil 
reputation with the Jews because 
he was such an exactor among 
them. His tax-collector Heliodo- 
rus poisoned him and so he was 
slain "neither in anger, nor in 
battle.'' 



Fulfilled Prophecy a Potent Argument for the Bible 83 



PROPHECY GIVEN B. C. 534 

"And in his estate shall stand 
up a vile person, to whom they 
shall not give the honor of the 
kingdom : but he shall come in 
peaceably, and obtain the kingdom 
by flatteries." (Verse 21.) 



"And with the arms of a flood 
shall they be overflown from be- 
fore him, and shall be broken; 
yea, also the prince of the cove- 
nant." (Verse 22.) 

"And after the league made 
with him he shall work deceit- 
fully: for he shall come up, and 
shall become strong with a small 
people." (Verse 23.) 

"He shall enter peaceably even 
upon the fattest places of the prov- 
ince; and he shall do that which 
his fathers have not done, nor his 
father's father; he shall scatter 
among them the prey, and spoil, 
and riches : yea, and he shall fore- 
cast his devices against the strong- 
holds, even for a time." (Verse 
24.) 

"And he shall stir up his power 
and his courage against the King 
of the South with a great army; 
and the King of the South shall 
be stirred up to battle with a very 
great and mighty army; but he 
shall not stand: for they shall 
forecast devices against him." 
(Verse 25.) 



FULFILLMENT 

This vile person is none other 
than Antiochus Epiphanes. He 
had no claim on royal dignities, 
being only a younger son of 
Antiochus the Great. He seized 
royal honors by trickery and with 
flatteries. He is the little horn 
of chapter 8. 

He was successful in defeating 
his enemies. The prince of the 
covenant may mean his nephew 
Ptolemy Philometor. He also van- 
quished Philometor's generals. 

He feigned friendship to young 
Ptolemy but worked deceitfully. 
To allay suspicion he came against 
Egypt with a small force but took 
Egypt as far as Memphis. 

He took possession of the fertile 
places in Egypt under the pretense 
of peace. He took Pelusium and 
laid seige to the fortified places 
Naucratis and Alexandria. 



This King of the South is Ptol- 
emy Physcon, who was made king 
after Philometor had fallen into 
the hands of Antiochus. He had 
a great army but did not succeed, 
because treason had broken out in 
his own camp. 



84 



The Fundamentals 



PROPHECY GIVEN B. C. 534 

"Yea, they that feed of the por- 
tion of his meat shall destroy him, 
and his army shall overflow : and 
many shall fall down slain." 
(Verse 26.) 

"And both these kings' hearts 
shall be to do mischief, and they 
shall speak lies at one table ; but 
it shall not prosper : for yet the 
end shall be at the time appointed." 
(Verse 27.) 

"Then shall he return into his 
land with great riches; and his 
heart shall be against the holy 
covenant; and he shall do ex- 
ploits, and return to his own land." 
(Verse 28.) 



"At the time appointed he shall 
return, and come toward the 
South ; but it shall not be as the 
former, or as the latter." (Verse 
29.) 

"For the ships of Chittim shall 
come against him; therefore he 
shall be grieved, and return, and 
have indignation against the holy 
covenant: so shall he do; he shall 
even return, and have intelligence 
with them that forsake the holy 
covenant." (Verse 30.) 



FULFILLMENT 

Additional actions of Antiochus 
and warfare, in which he was 
successful, followed. 



The two kings are Antiochus 
Epiphanes and his associate Philo- 
metor. They made an alliance 
against Ptolemy Euergetes II, also 
called Physcon. But they spoke 
lies against each other and did not 
succeed in their plans. 

In 168 B. c. he returned from 
his expedition and had great rich- 
es. Then he marched through 
Judea and did his awful deeds. A 
report had come to his ears that 
the Jewish people had reported 
him dead. In the first and second 
book of the Maccabees we read of 
his atrocities. Then he retired to 
Antioch. 

He made still another attempt 
against the South. However, he 
had not the former success. 



The ships of Chittim are the 
Roman fleet. When within a few 
miles of Alexandria he heard that 
ships had arrived. He went to 
salute them. They delivered to 
him the letters of the senate, in 
which he was commanded, on pain 
of the displeasure of the Roman 
people, to put an end to the war 
against his nephews. Antiochus 
said, "he would go and consult his 



Fulfilled Prophecy a Potent Argument for the Bible 85 



PROPHECY GIVEN B. C. 534 



"And arms shall stand on his 
part and they shall pollute the 
sanctuary of strength, and shall 
take away the daily sacrifice, and 
they shall place the abomination 
that maketh desolate." (Verse 31.) 



"And such as do wickedly 
against the covenant shall he cor- 
rupt by flatteries: but the people 
that do know their God shall be 
strong, and do exploits. 

"And they that understand 
among the people shall instruct 



FULFILLMENT 

friends;" on which Popilius, one 
of the legates, took his staff, and 
instantly drew a circle round An- 
tiochus on the sand, where he 
stood ; and commanded him not to 
pass that circle, till he had given 
a definite answer. As a grieved 
and defeated man he returned and 
then he fell upon Judea once 
more to commit additional wick- 
edness. Apostate Jews sided with 
him. 

This brings us to the climax 
of the horrors under Antiochus 
Epiphanes. The previous record 
of it is contained in chapter 8. He 
sent Apollonius with over 20,000 
men to destroy Jerusalem. Multi- 
tudes were slain, and women and 
children led away as captives. He 
issued a command that all people 
must conform to the idolatry of 
Greece. A wicked Grecian was 
sent to enforce the word of An- 
tiochus. All sacrifices ceased and 
the God-given ceremonials of 
Judaism came to an end. The 
temple was polluted by the sacri- 
fices of swine's flesh. The temple 
was dedicated to Jupiter Olym- 
pius. Thus the prediction was ful- 
filled. 

These verses describe the con- 
dition among the Jewish people. 
There were two classes. Those 
who did wickedly against the 
covenant, the apostate, and those 
who knew God, a faithful rem- 
nant. The apostates sided with 



86 The Fundamentals 

PROPHECY GIVEN B. C. 534 Fin.FILLMENT 

many: yet they shall fall by the the enemy, and the people who 

sword, and by flame, by captivity, knew God were strong. This has 

and by spoil, many days. reference to the noble Maccabees. 

"Now when they shall fall, they There was also suffering and per- 

shall be holpen with a little help : secution. 
but many shall cleave to them 
with flatteries." (Verses 32-34.) 

MANY MORE FULFILLED PROPHECIES 

Many other fulfilled prophecies might be quoted. In the 
last chapter of Daniel an interesting prediction is made con- 
cerning the time of the end. "Many shall run to and fro, and 
knowledge shall be increased." Sir Isaac Newton, the dis- 
coverer of the law of gravitation, wrote on Daniel and ex- 
pressed his belief that some day people would travel at the 
rate of fifty miles an hour. The French infidel Voltaire many 
years later laughed at Newton's statement and held it up to 
ridicule. The time of the end is here and the prophecy of 
Dan. 12:4 has come true. 

In the New Testament are also written prophecies which 
are now in process of fulfillment. 1 Tim. 4:1, 2; 2 Tim. 
3 : 1-5 ; 4 : 1-3 ; 2 Pet. 2 ; Jude's Epistle, and other Scriptures 
predict the present day apostasy. 

UNFULFILLED PROPHECY 

As stated before, there are many unfulfilled prophecies in 
the Bible. The literal fulfillment of prophecies in the past 
vouches for the literal fulfillment of every prophecy in the 
Word of God. Some of them were uttered several thousand 
years ago. The world still waits for their fulfillment. May 
we remember that God does not need to be in a hurry. He 
knows indeed the end from the beginning. He takes His 
time in accomplishing His eternal purposes. And may we, 
His people, who know and love His Word, not neglect proph- 
ecy, for the Prophetic Word is the lamp which shineth in a 
dark place. 



CHAPTER V 

THE COMING OF CHRIST 

BY PROFESSOR CHARLES R. ERDMAN, D. D., 
PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 

The return of Christ is a fundamental doctrine of the Chris- 
tian faith. It is embodied in hymns of hope; it forms the 
chmax of the creeds ; it is the subHme motive for evangehstic 
and missionary activity; and daily it is voiced in the inspired 
prayer: "Even so: Come, Lord Jesus." 

It is peculiarly a Scriptural doctrine. It is not, on the one 
hand, a dream of ignorant fanatics, nor, on the other, a crea- 
tion of speculative theologians; but it is a truth divinely re- 
vealed, and recorded in the Bible with marked clearness, em- 
phasis and prominence. 

Like the other great tniths of revelation it is a controverted 
doctrine. The essential fact is held universally by all who 
admit the authority of Scripture ; but as to certain incidental, 
although important, elements of the teaching, there is differ- 
ence of opinion among even the most careful and reverent 
students. Any consideration of the theme demands, therefore, 
modesty, humility and abundant charity. According to the 
familiar view outlined in this paper, the Bible describes the 
"second coming of Christ" as personal, glorious, imminent. 

I. HIS COMING WILL BE PERSONAL 

By personal is meant all that may be suggested by the 
words visible, bodily, local; and all that may be contrasted with 
that which is spiritual, providential, figurative. Of course, 
the spiritual presence of Christ is a blessed reality ; one of the 
most comforting and inspiring of truths is the teaching that 
Christ does come to each believer, by His Holy Spirit, and 

87 



88 The Fundamentals 

dwells within, and empowers for service and suffering and 
growth in grace; but this is to be held in harmony with the 
other blessed truth that Christ will some day literally appear 
again in bodily form, and "we shall see Him" and shall then 
"be like Him," when "we see Him as He is." 

Nor yet did that special manifestation of the Holy Spirit 
at Pentecost fulfill the promise of Christ's return. Subse- 
quent to Pentecost, Peter urged the Jews to repent in order 
that Jesus, whom for a time "the heavens had received," might 
be "sent back again ;" he wrote his epistles of comfort based 
upon the hope of a returning Lord, while Paul and the other 
inspired Apostles, long after Pentecost, emphasized the coming 
of Christ as the highest incentive for life and service. 

According to the interpretation of others, Christ is said 
"to come" in various providential events of history, as notably 
in the destruction of Jerusalem. This tragedy of history is 
supposed by many to fulfill the prophecies spoken by Christ 
in His great discourse on the Mount of Olives, recorded in 
Matthew 24, and Mark 13, and Luke 21. When one com- 
bines these predictions, it becomes evident that the capture of 
the holy city by Titus was a real but only a partial fulfillment 
of the words of Christ. As in the case of so many Old Testa- 
ment prophecies, the nearer event furnished the colors in 
which were depicted scenes and occurrences which belonged 
to a distant future, and in this case to "the end of the age." 
When Jerusalem fell, the people of God were not delivered 
nor the enemies of God punished, nor did "the sign of the 
Son of Man" appear in the heavens, as was predicted of the 
time when He comes again ; and long after the fall of the city, 
John wrote in Gospel and in Apocalypse of the coming of 
the King. 

Nor is the coming of Christ to be confused with death. It 
is true that this dark messenger ushers us into an experience 
which is, for the believer, one of great blessedness ; "to depart 
is to be with Christ, which is very far better," "to be absent 



The Coming of Christ 89 

from the body" is "to be at home with the Lord ;" but death is 
for us inseparable from pain and loss and sorrow and tears 
and anguish ; and even those who are now with their Lord, in 
heavenly joy, are waiting for their bodies of glory and for the 
rewards and reunions which will be theirs at the appearing of 
Christ. 

More marvelous than the scenes at Pentecost, more start- 
ling than the fall of Jerusalem, more blessed than the indwell- 
ing of the Spirit or the departure to be with the Lord, will be 
the literal, visible, bodily, return of Christ. No event may 
seem less probable to unaided human reason ; no event is more 
certain in the light of inspired Scripture. "This same Jesus 
which is taken up from you into heaven shall so come in like 
manner as ye have seen Him go into heaven." "Behold, He 
Cometh with clouds ; and every eye shall see Him" (Acts 1:11; 
Rev. 1:7). 

II. HIS COMING, GLORIOUS 

This coming of Christ is to be glorious, not only in its at- 
tendant circumstances, but also in its effects upon the Church 
and the world. Our Lord predicted that He would return 
"in His own glory, and the glory of His Father, and of the 
holy angels" (Luke 9:26). He will then be revealed in His 
Divine majesty. Once during His earthly ministry, on the 
mount of transfiguration, there was given to His followers a 
glimpse of the royal splendor He had for a time laid aside, and 
in which He will again appear. 

As on the great day of atonement the high priest put off 
his usual robes "for glory and for beauty" and appeared in 
spotless white, when he offered the sacrifices for sin and went 
into the holy place to intercede for the waiting people, so our 
Great High Priest laid aside the robes of His imperial majesty 
when stooping from heaven He assumed His garb of sinless 
flesh, and offered Himself as the perfect sacrifice and entered 
into the holy places not made with hands to appear in the 



90 The Fundamentals 

presence of God for us ; but as the high priest again assumed 
his garments of scarlet and blue and purple and gold when he 
came forth to complete his work in the presence of the people, 
so Christ, when He returns to bless, and to receive the homage 
of the world, will be manifest in His Divine glory. (Heb. 9 : 24- 
28.) As He appeared to Isaiah in his vision, to the disciples 
on the holy mount, to Saul on his way to Damascus, to John 
on Patmos, so will the Son of Man appear when, as He prom- 
ised, He is seen "sitting at the right hand of Power, and 
coming on the clouds of heaven" (Matt. 26:64). Nothing 
could be more natural than such a triumphant return of the 
risen, ascended Lord. What a pathetic picture Christ would 
present in the history of the race, if, after all His claims and 
promises, the world should see Him, last of all, hanging on a 
cross as a malefactor, or laid lifeless in a tomb! "He was 
despised and rejected of men;" but He is to return again "with 
power and great glory," attended by thousands of the heavenly 
host. As the Epistle to the Hebrews strikingly says : "When 
He again bringeth in the first born into the inhabited earth He 
saith, And let all the angels of God worship Him" (Heb. 1:6). 

"Thou art coming, O my Saviour, 
Thou art coming, O my King, 
In Thy beauty all resplendent ; 
In Thy glory all transcendent ; 
Well may we rejoice and sing: 
Coming ! in the opening East 
Herald brightness slowly swells; 
Coming ! O my glorious Priest, 
Hear we not Thy golden bells." 

Then Christ will reign in glory over all the world. It is 
true that now "all power" has been given to Him "in heaven 
and on earth," but that power has not been fully manifest; 
"we see not yet all things put under Him." He has "sat down 



The Coming of Christ 91 

on the right hand of God," but He is "henceforth expecting 
till His enemies be made the footstool of His feet." He is 
now reigning, seated on His Father's throne; but this world 
is still in reality a revolted province, and Christ is yet to sit 
upon His own throne ; then "before Him every knee will bow, 
and every tongue confess that He is Lord" (Heb. 10: 12, 13; 
Phil. 2: 10, 11). 

These expressions need not be interpreted with such crass 
literalness as to suggest that Christ will rule visibly in some 
one earthly locality, "establishing in Jerusalem an oriental 
court ;" but they at least mean that the coming of Christ will 
be followed by the universal reign of Christ. "When the Son 
of Man shall come in His glory, and all the angels with Him, 
then shall He sit on the throne of His glory" (Matt. 25:31). 
He will determine who may enter and who must be excluded 
from His kingdom. He will then say: "Come ye blessed of 
My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the 
foundation of the world." Then will be fulfilled His predic- 
tion: "Not every one that saith unto Me, Lord, Lord, shall 
enter into the kingdom of heaven, but he that doeth the will 
of My Father who is in heaven. Many will say to Me in that 
day. Lord, Lord, . . . and then will I profess unto 
them, I never knew you, depart from Me, ye that work in- 
iquity" (Matt. 7:21-23). He will be the supreme Judge, but 
He will also be manifest as the universal Ruler in His per- 
fected kingdom. Then the voices will be heard proclaiming: 
"The kingdom of the world is become the kingdom of our 
Lord, and of His Christ ; and He shall reign forever and ever" 
(Rev. 11:15). 

In this glory of Christ His followers are to share. The 
resurrection of the dead will take place when He returns: 
"For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made 
alive. But each in his own order: Christ the first fruits; 
then they that are Christ's at His coming." The body of the 
believer is thus to be raised in glory. "It is sown in corrup- 



92 The Fundamentals 

tion ; it is raised in incorruption : it is sown in dishonor ; it is 
raised in glory." As to how the spirits now with Christ are 
to be united with their resurrection bodies, the Bible is abso- 
lutely silent; but we know that this will be at the coming of 
the Lord. (1 Cor. IS : 22, 23, 42, 43.) 

Then, too, the bodies of living believers will be glorified, 
and made deathless and immortal like the body of their Divine 
Lord. "For our citizenship is in heaven; whence also we wait 
for a Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ : who shall fashion anew 
the body of our humiliation, that it may be conformed to the 
body of His glory" (Phil. 3:20, 21). Sometimes it is care- 
lessly said that "nothing is so sure as death"; one thing is 
more sure; it is this: some Christians will never die. One 
generation of believers will be living when Christ returns, and 
they will be translated, without the experience of death. What 
"is mortal will be swallowed up of life." They never will be 
unclothed," but "clothed upon" with the glory of immortality. 
"Behold, I tell you a mystery : We shall not all sleep, but we 
shall all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, 
at the last trump ; for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead 
shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed" (1 Cor. 
15:51, 52; 2 Cor. 5:4). 

Then, also, will be the blessed reunion in glory of the risen 
and the transfigured followers of Christ. "For this we say 
unto you by the word of the Lord, that we that are alive, that 
are left unto the coming of the Lord, shall in no wise precede 
them that are fallen asleep. For the Lord Himself shall de- 
scend from heaven, with a shout, with the voice of the arch- 
angel, and with the trump of God : and the dead in Christ shall 
rise first; then we that are alive, that are left, shall together 
with them be caught up in the clouds to meet the Lord in the 
air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord" (1 Thess. 4: 
13-18). 

"Some from earth, from glory some. 
Severed only 'Till He Come.' " 



The Coining of Christ 93 

The time of the return of the Lord will be, furtheriTiore, 
the time of the reward of His servants. The Son of Man is 
likened to a nobleman who has gone "into a far country to 
receive for himself a kingdom, and to return." He has en- 
trusted various talents to his servants with the command to use 
them wisely, until his return. When he has "come back again, 
having received the kingdom," then he "maketh a reckoning 
with them." It is popularly said, and in a sense it is true, that 
when our loved ones go to be with Christ "they have gone to 
their reward"; but more strictly speaking, the full reward of 
the blessed awaits the coming of Christ. Whatever may be 
meant by being "set over many things," or having "authority 
over ten cities," the complete recompense of the faithful is 
"at the resurrection of the just." (Matt. 25: 14-23; Luke 19: 
11-27; Luke 14:14.) 

That the real coronation day of the Christian is not at 
death but at "the appearing of Christ" was strikingly suggested 
by Paul when, realizing that he was to die before the Lord 
returned, he gave to Timothy his triumphant farewell: "I 
have fought the good fight, I have finished the course, I have 
kept the faith : henceforth there is laid up for me the crown 
of righteousness, which the Lord the righteous Judge shall 
give to me at that day: and not to me only, but also to all 
them that have loved His appearing" (2 Tim. 4:7, 8). So 
Peter encourages pastors to be faithful, by the familiar prom- 
ise: "And when the chief Shepherd shall he manifested, ye 
shall receive the crown of glory that fadeth not away" (1 
Peter 5:1-4). In large measure this reward will consist in 
being changed into a moral likeness to Christ. This is far 
more marvelous than the transfiguration of our bodies, but no 
less real. "Beloved, now are we the children of God, and it 
is not yet made manifest what we shall be. We know that if 
He shall be manifested, we shall be like Him; for we shall 
see Him even as He is" (1 John 3: 1-3). The reward which 
awaits the followers of Christ further includes the fulfillment 



94 The Fundamentals 

of the blessed prophecies which declare the saints are to reign 
with Christ. "Know ye not that the saints shall judge the 
earth . . . Know ye not that we shall judge angels?" 
"If we endure we shall also reign with Him." "I appoint unto 
you a kingdom . . . and ye shall sit on thrones judging 
the twelve tribes of Israel." (1 Cor. 6:2, 3; 2 Tim. 2: 12; 
Luke 22: 30.) Whatever may be denoted by promises so full 
of wonder and mystery, they do not mean that "the saints are 
to rule on earth in the flesh." Believers will previously have 
been "raised in glory," transfigured, translated. As co-regents 
with their Lord they may be privileged to perform blessed 
ministries for the world, but they nevertheless will belong to 
His immortal and heavenly kingdom. "They are like the 
angels of God . . . being the children of the resurrec- 
tion" (Luke 20: 35, 36). 

Such a rule of Christ and His people must secure unparal- 
leled blessedness for the world. "The end of the world" does 
not mean, in prophecy, the end of the earth and the destruction 
of its inhabitants ; but the end of "the present age," which is to 
be followed by an age of glory. The "present evil age" is 
predicted to close amid scenes of fiery judgment upon the 
enemies of Grod, and with portents and convulsions which will 
afifect the very earth itself; but the results will be what is 
figuratively described as the "new heavens and the new earth 
wherein dwelleth righteousness." Nature itself will become 
more beautiful and joyous. "The whole creation which is 
groaning and travailing in pain together until now will be 
delivered from the bondage of corruption unto the liberty of 
the glory of the children of God" (Rom. 8: 21). In spite of 
the sin and failures of man, we are not to look for the destruc- 
tion of this globe, but for an era when the true full life of 
humanity will be realized, when all shall know the Lord from 
the least unto the greatest, when all art and science and social 
institutions shall be Christian, when "nation shall not lift up 
sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more" 



The Coming of Christ 95 

(Isa. 2:1-4). Such an age, of which poets have sung and 
philosophers have dreamed, such an era as psalmists, and 
prophets, and apostles have promised, will dawn at the coming 
of the King. Inspired by such a hope the waiting Church has 
learned to sing: 

"Come, Lord, and tarry not; 
Bring the long looked for day ; 
O, why these years of waiting here, 
These ages of delay? 

"Come, and make all things new ; 
Build up this ruined earth; 
Restore our faded Paradise, 
Creation's second birth. 

"Come, and begin Thy reign 
Of everlasting peace ; 
Come, take the kingdom to Thyself, 
Great King of righteousness." 

III. IMMINENT 

The Bible further describes the coming of Christ as immi- 
nent. It is an event which may occur in any lifetime. What- 
ever difficulties the fact involves, there is no doubt that all the 
inspired writers and their fellow Christians believed that Christ 
might return in their generation. This has been the normal 
attitude of the Church ever since. Paul describes believers as 
men "who have turned to God from idols" and who "wait for 
His Son from heaven." Christians are further described as 
"those that wait for Him," and as "those that love His appear- 
ing." They are everywhere in the New Testament exhorted 
to "watch," and to be ready for the return of their Lord. 
His coming is their constant encouragement and inspiration 
and hope. ( 1 Thess. 4 : 10 ; 2 Peter 4:8; Matt. 24 : 42 ; Mark 
13:35, 37; Luke 21:36; Phil. 4:5.) 



96 The Fundamentals 

However, "imminent" does not mean "immediate." Con- 
fusion of tliese ideas has led some writers to assert that "Paul 
and the early Christians were mistaken in their views as to the 
Lord's return." But, when Paul used such a phrase as "we 
that are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord," he 
meant simply to identify himself with his fellow Christians, 
and to suggest that, if he lived until Christ came, their blessed 
experience would also be his. He could not have said, "ye 
that are alive and remain;" that would have indicated that 
Paul was to die first. This he did not then know. He be- 
lieved that the Lord might return in his life time; he never 
asserted that He would. 

"Imminence" as related to our Lord's return indicates 
uncertainty as to time, but possibility of nearness. "Take ye 
heed, watch, for ye know not when the time is" (Mark 13 : 33). 
Such statements rebuke those who have brought the doctrine 
into disrepute by announcing dates for "the end of the world," 
and by setting times for the coming of Christ. So, too, they 
suggest caution to those who assert that the age is now draw- 
ing to its close; it may be, but of this there is no certainty. 
These Scriptural exhortations to watch seem to contradict, also, 
those who teach that a "Millennium," a thousand years or a 
protracted period of righteousness, must intervene between 
the present time and the advent of Christ. 

Those who hold this last view are commonly called "Post- 
Millennialists" to distinguish them from "Pre-Millennialists," 
who hold that the return of Christ will precede and usher in 
such an age of universal blessedness. 

The great objection to the Pre-Millennial position is the 
apparent prediction of 2 Peter 3, that at the coming of Christ, 
in "the day of the Lord," the earth will be destroyed; there 
could then be no place for a millennium. The difficulty in the 
Post-Millennial theory is the repeated description of this pres- 
ent age as one of mingled good and evil, in v/hich iniquity, as 
well as righteousness, continues to develop ixninterruptedly ; 



The Coming of Christ 97 

there is thus no time for a millennium before the Lord returns. 
As to the passage from Peter, it is obviously no more sub- 
versive of one of these theories than of the other. No one can 
possibly review the picture, which the Apostle draws in his 
two epistles, of the apostasy and skepticism and godlessness 
already prevailing and surely deepening as "the day of the 
Lord" draws near, and find any place for a previous millen- 
nium before "that day." The predictions of fiery judgments 
and consequent "new heavens and new earth" must be read 
in connection with Isaiah 65 and 66, from which Peter is 
quoting. It will then be seen that these expressions are in-so- 
far figurative that the earth still continues with its life, its 
nations, its progress, after these judgments are over. Terrific 
convulsions, and governmental, social and cosmic changes, only 
introduce a new and better age. So, too, "the day of the Lord" 
is a familiar phrase, and as we read Zech. 14 we see that while, 
in that day, the Lord comes amidst appalling portents. His 
coming and the day itself are followed by a scene of great 
blessedness on this same earth; the Nile is still flowing in its 
course and the nations are going up to Jerusalem to worship. 
(Note also that in 2 Pet. 3 : 10 the most ancient manuscripts do 
not read "burned up" but "discovered.") 

There are other positive statements of Scripture which in- 
timate that the millennium follows the coming of Christ. 

According to Daniel, it is after the Son of Man comes with 
the clouds of heaven that He is given "dominion and glory and 
a kingdom, that all peoples, nations and languages should serve 
Him, . . . and the kingdom and the dominion and the 
greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven," are "given 
to the people of the saints of the Most High ; . . . and 
all dominions shall serve and obey Him" (Dan. 7: 13, 14, 27). 
According to the Psalms, the appearing of the Lord, in flaming 
fire upon His adversaries, prepares the way for the establish- 
ment of His glorious kingdom, as "He comes to rule the world 
with righteousness and the peoples with equity" (Psa. 96, 97, 



98 The Fundamentals 

98, etc.). According to Paul (2 Thess. 1 and 2) the advent 
described by Daniel is not to an earth which is enjoying mil- 
lennial peace, but it is "in flaming fire" to destroy an existing 
"Man of Sin" whose career is the culmination of the lawless- 
ness already manifest and to continue until the personal com- 
ing of Christ. According to our Lord Himself His return is to 
bring "the regeneration," not the destruction of the world 
(Matt. 19 : 28 ; Luke 22 : 28-30) . But this rule of blessedness 
is preceded by judgments that come "as a snare on all the 
earth" (Luke 21': 29-36). According to Peter, "seasons of re- 
freshing" and "the restitution of all things," not annihilation 
of the globe, will come with the return of Christ (Acts 3 : 19- 
21). According to John, the coming of Christ (Rev. 19) 
precedes the millennium. (Rev. 20.) 

However great the divergence of views among students of 
prophecy may seem to be, and in spite of the many varieties of 
opinion among the representatives of the two schools which 
have been mentioned in passing, the points of agreement are 
far more important. The main difference is as to the order, 
rather than as to the reality of events. 

The great body of believers are united in expecting both 
an age of glory and a personal return of Christ As to many 
related events they differ; but as to the one great precedent 
condition of that coming age or that promised return of the 
Lord there is absolute harmony of conviction: the Gospel 
must first he preached to all nations (Matt. 24:14). The 
Church must continue to "make disciples of all the nations 
. . . even unto the end of the age" (Matt. 28: 19, 20). 

This is therefore a time, not for unkindly criticism of fellow 
Christians, but for friendly conference ; not for disputing over 
divergent views, but for united action; not for dogmatic as- 
sertion of prophetic programs, but for the humble acknowledg- 
ment that "we know in part;" not for idle dreaming, but for 
the immediate task of evangelizing a lost world. 



The Coming of Christ 99 

For such effort, no one truth is more inspiring, than that 
of the return of Christ. None other can make us sit more 
lightly by the things of time, none other is more familiar as a 
Scriptural motive to purity, holiness, patience, vigilance, love. 
Strengthened by this blessed hope let us press forward with 
passionate zeal to the task that awaits us: 

"Till o'er our ransomed nature 
The Lamb for sinners slain. 
Redeemer, King, Creator, 
In bliss returns to reign !" 



CHAPTER VI 

IS ROMANISM CHRISTIANITY? 

BY T. W. MED HURST, 
GLASGOW, SCOTLAND 

I am aware that, if I undertake to prove that Romanism is 
not Christianity, I must expect to be called "bigoted, harsh, 
uncharitable." Nevertheless I am not daunted; for I believe 
that on a right understanding of this subject depends the sal- 
vation of millions. 

One reason why Popery has of late gained so much power 
in Great Britain and Ireland, and is gaining power still, is that 
many Protestants look on it now as a form of true Chris- 
tianity ; and think that, on that account, notwithstanding great 
errors, it ought to be treated very tenderly. Many suppose 
that at the time of the Reformation, it was reformed, and 
that it is now much nearer the truth than it was before that 
time. It is still, however, the same; and, if examined, will 
be found to be so different from, and so hostile to, real Chris- 
tianity, that it is not, in fact, Christianity at all. 

Christianity, as revealed in the Sacred Writings, is salva- 
tion by Christ. It sets Him before us as at once a perfect man, 
the everlasting God, the God-man Mediator; who, by appoint- 
ment of the Father, became a Substitute for all who were 
given Him. It teaches that by Him God's justice was magni- 
fied, and His mercy made manifest ; that, for all who trust in 
Him, He fulfilled the law, and brought in a complete righteous- 
ness; and that by this alone they can be justified before God. 
It teaches that His death was a perfect sacrifice, and made 
full satisfaction and atonement for their sins, so that God lays 
no sin to their charge, but gives them a free and full pardon ; 
that He has ascended to the right hand of God, and has sent 

100 



Is Romanism Christianity f 101 

down the Holy Spirit to be His only Vicar and Representa- 
tive on earth; that He is the only Mediator between the 
righteous God and sinful man; that it is by the Holy Spirit 
alone that we are convinced of sin, and led to trust in Jesus ; 
that all who trust in Him, and obey Him with the obedience 
of faith and love, are saved, and, being saved, are made 
"kings and priests unto God," and have "eternal life" in Him. 

This is Christianity, the Christianity which the Apostles 
preached. But side by side with the Apostles, Satan went 
forth also, and preached what Paul calls "another gospel." 
Paul did not mean that it was called "another gospel ;" but that 
as Satan "beguiled Eve through his subtlety" (2 Cor. 11:3), 
so some, while professing to teach the Gospel, were turning 
men away "from the simplicity that is in Christ;" and by 
doing so, did, in fact, teach "another gospel." Paul, speak- 
ing of those who were thus deceived, said, "I marvel that 
ye are so soon removed from Him that called you into the 
grace of Christ unto another gospel which is not another; 
but there be some that trouble you, and would pervert the Gos- 
pel of Christ." He means that there can be but one Gospel, 
though something else may be called the gospel; and he 
says of those who had thus perverted "the Gospel of Christ" : 
"If any one preach any other gospel unto you ... let 
him be accursed" (Gal. 1:6-9). He calls those who 
did so "false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming them- 
selves into the apostles of Christ;" and he adds, "no marvel; 
for Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light. 
Therefore, it is no great thing if his ministers also be trans- 
formed as the ministers of righteousness; whose end shall 
be according to their works" (2 Cor. 11: 13-15). 

Let us consider well the meaning of these passages of 
Scripture. Paul says that there cannot be another Gospel; 
the conclusion, therefore, is evident, that these teachers were 
not teachers of Christianity, but of a Satanic delusion. 



102 The Fundamentals 

I submit that the teaching of Rome is at least as different 
from that of the Sacred Writings as that which Paul calls 
"another gospel;" and that, therefore, his words authorize 
us to say that Romanism is not Christianity. 

FIRST, Christianity consists of what Christ has taught, 
and commanded in Scripture. But Romanism does not even 
profess to be founded on Scripture only : it claims a right to 
depart from what is contained in it — a right to add to 
Scripture what is handed down by tradition; and both to 
depart from and add to Scripture by making nezv decrees. 
It forbids the cup to the people, for instance, in what it calls 
"the mass," and yet admits that it was not forbidden to them 
at "the beginning of the Christian religion" (Council of 
Trent, Session 21, chap. 2). It says that councils and the 
pope have been empowered by the Holy Spirit to make 
decrees by which, in reality, the doctrines delivered by Christ 
are entirely annulled. To show how extensively this has been 
done, let the reader endeavor to trace the full effect of what 
Rome teaches as to baptismal regeneration, transubstantiation, 
justification by means of sacraments and deeds done by us, 
the invocation of saints — things which are entirely opposed 
to the teaching of Christ. 

The canons of the Council of Trent, which sat at in- 
tervals from 1545 to 1563, may be called the Bible of Ro- 
manism. They were translated into English, as late as 1848, 
by a Roman Catholic priest, under the sanction of Dr. 
Wiseman. The Council tells us that one end for which it 
was called was "the extirpation of heresies." What, then, 
according to it, is the standard of truth? It tells us that 
Rome receives The Sacred Scriptures and "The Unwritten 
Traditions . . . preserved in continuous succession in 
the Catholic Church, with equal affection of piety and rever- 
ence" ( Session 4) ; also that "no one may dare to interpret 
the Sacred Scriptures" in a manner contrary to that "Church ; 



Is Romanism Christianity? 103 

•whose it is to judge respecting the true sense and inter- 
pretation of the Sacred Scriptures;" nor may any one inter- 
pret them "in a manner contrary to the unanimous consent 
of the fathers" (Session 4). 

Christ commands us to "prove all things" (1 Thess. 5 : 21) ; 
to "search the Scriptures" (John 5 : 39) ; to ascertain for our- 
selves, as the Bereans did, whether what we hear agrees with 
what we read in Scripture (Acts 17: 11). He commands us 
to "hold fast the form of sound words," uttered by HimSelf 
and His Apostles (2 Tim. 1 : 13) ; to "contend earnestly for the 
faith delivered once for all to the saints" (Jude 3). But 
Rome says, "Let no one dare to do so" — ^let all "Christian 
princes . . . cause [men] to observe" our decrees 
(Session 16), nor "permit" them to be "violated by heretics" 
(Session 25). The Romanist must not dare to have an 
opinion of his own ; his mind must exist in the state of utter 
prostration and bondage; he must not attempt to understand 
the Scripture himself. And if others attempt it — if they 
dare to receive the teaching and do the will of Christ, instead 
of receiving fictions and obeying commands of men, which 
wholly subvert and destroy the truth and will of Jesus, Rome 
command? the civil ruler to restrain them; and, by the use 
of fines, imprisonment, and death, to compel them, if possible, 
to renounce what God requires them to maintain and follow, 
even unto death. 

The Bible, the whole Bible, nothing but the Bible, is the 
standard and the rule of Christianity. To know its meaning for 
ourselves, to receive its teaching, to rely on its promises, to 
trust in its Redeemer, to obey Him from delight of love, 
and to refuse to follow other teaching, is Christianity itself. 
But Romanism denies all this; and therefore, Romanism is 
not Christianity. 

SECONDLY: Christ commanded us to show "meekness" 
towards those who oppose us (2 Tim. 2:25). He says, 
"Love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good 



104 The Fundamentals 

to those who hate you, and pray for those who use you 
despitefully and persecute you" (Matt. 5:44). 

But Romanism teaches men to hate, and, if they are able, 
to persecute to the death all those who will not receive it. 
Its deeds have been diabolical and murderous. It is 
"drunken with the blood of the saints." It has inscribed on 
the page of history warnings which appeal to the reason 
and the feelings of all generations. Such a warning is 
what is told of the 24th of August, 1572. On that day the 
Protestants of Paris were devoted to slaughter by members 
of the Papal Church. For the one offence of being Protestants, 
thousands were slain. The streets of Paris ran with blood; 
everywhere cries and groans, were mingled with the clangor 
of bells, the clash of arms, and the oaths of murderers. The 
king, Charles IX, stood, it is said, at a window, and, every 
now and then, fired on the fugitives. Every form of guilt, 
cruelty, and suffering, made that fearful night hideous and 
appalling. Never, in any city, which has professedly been 
brought under the influence of Christianity, was there such 
a revelling in blood and crime. You may say, "Why do you 
recall the atrocities of a time so remote?" I answer. Because 
this deed received the sanction of the Church of Rome as a 
meritorious demonstration of fidelity to Romish precepts and 
doctrines. When the tidings of this wholesale murder were 
received in Rome, the cannon of St. Angelo were fired, 
the city was illuminated and Pope Gregory XIII and his 
cardinals went in procession to all the churches, and offered 
thanksgivings at the shrine of every saint. The Cardinal 
of Lorraine, in a letter to Charles IX, full of admiration and 
applause of the bloody deed, said, "That which you have 
achieved was so infinitely above my hopes, that I should have 
never dared to contemplate it; nevertheless, I have always 
believed that the deeds of your Majesty would augment the 
glory of God, and tend to immortalize your name." 



Is Romanism Christianity? 105 

Some say that Rome has ceased to persecute. But this 
is not the fact ; either as to her acts, or rules of action. She 
asserts that she is unchanged, unchangeable; that she is in- 
fallible, and cannot alter, except so far as necessity, or plans 
for the future, may require; and facts are often occurring 
which prove that persecution is still approved by her. Rome 
has little power now ; her persecuting spirit is kept in abeyance 
for a time ; but it is still there. When it is free from restraint, 
it knows no way of dealing with difference of opinion but 
by the rack, the stake, the thumbscrew, the iron boot, the 
assassin's dagger, or a wholesale massacre. Let all who value 
their liberty, all who love the truth as it is in Jesus have no 
fellowship with such deeds of darkness, nor with those 
who work them. Let us show that we have no sympathy 
with such a cruel spirit; and that we love the names and 
memory of the noble army of martyrs of the Reformation ; 
of those who sealed their faith with their blood; of those 
who died to release their country and their posterity from 
the bondage of Rome. 

I agree with Dr. Samuel Waldegrave, when he says that, 
"The Convocation of the English clergy did wisely, when, in 
the days of Elizabeth, they enacted that every parish church 
in the land should be furnished with a copy of Foxe's Book 
of Martyrs;" and that it would be well if a copy of it were 
"in every house, yea, in every hand;" for "Rome is laboring, 
with redoubled effort, for the subjugation of Britain," and "the 
people have forgotten that she is a siren who enchants but 
to destroy." 

THIRDLY: As to the sacrifice of Christ, Christianity 
teaches that He was "offered once for all, to bear the sins 
of many" (Heb. 9:28); that those who are sanctified by 
His sacrifice are so "by the offering of the body of Jesus 
Christ once for all" ( 10 : 10) ; that "by one offering He has 
perfected forever those who are sanctified," or made holy 



106 The Fundamentals 

(10: 14) : these passages declare that the sacrifice of Christ 
was offered once for all, never to be repeated. But Rome 
declares that Christ is sacrificed anew, every time that the 
Lord's supper, which she calls "the mass," is celebrated; and 
that those who administer it are sacrificing priests. 

The Council of Trent (Session 22) says, "Forasmuch as 
in this Divine sacrifice, which is celebrated in the mass, that 
same Christ is contained, and immolated in an unbloody 
manner, who once offered Himself in a bloody manner, on the 
altar of the cross, the holy synod teaches that this sacrifice 
is truly propitiatory, and that, by means therof, this \s 
effected — that we obtain mercy and find grace in seasonable 
aid, if we draw nigh unto God, contrite and penitent, with a 
sincere heart and upright faith, with fear and reverence. 
For the Lord, appeased by the oblation thereof, and granting 
the grace and gift of penitence, forgives even heinous crimes 
and sins. For the victim is one and the same, the same now 
offering by the ministry of priests, who then offered Himself 
on the cross, the manner alone of offering being different." 
The synod commands the use of lights, incense, and the 
traditional vestments; also that the priests "mix water with 
the wine." 

In chapter 9, canon 1, the synod says, "If any one say 
that in the mass a true and proper sacrifice is not offered to 
God ; or, that to be offered, is nothing else but that Christ is 
given us to eat; let him be anathema." 

In canon 3, it decreed that, "If any one say that the 
sacrifice of the mass is only a sacrifice of praise and thanks- 
giving; or that it is a hare commemoration of the sacrifice 
consummated on the cross, but not a propitiatory sacrifice; or, 
that it profits him only who receives ; and that it ought not to 
be offered for the living and the dead for sins, pains, satisfac- 
tions, and other necessities ; let him be anathema." 

The Christ of Romanism is one who is sacrificed again 
and again for the remission of the sins both of the living 



Is Romanism Christianity? 107 

and the dead; for those ahve, and for those in purgatory. 
Is this the Christ of Christianity f 

In canon 1 of its 13th Session, the synod says, "If any 
one deny that, in the sacrament of the most holy Eucharist, 
are contained truly, really and substantially the body and 
blood, together with the soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, and consequently the whole Christ, but say that He is 
only therein as in a sign, or in figure, or virtue; let him be 
anathema." 

The Christ of the Bible, and of Christianity, is in heaven 
"at the right hand of God," where "He ever lives to make 
intercession for those who come to God through Him" (Rom. 
8:34; Col. 3:1; Heb. 7:25); nor will He come in bodily 
form to earth again until He comes the second time, without 
sin, unto salvation, to be admired in all those who believe 
(Heb. 9:28; 2 Thess. 1: 10). But the Christ of Romanism 
is upon the altars of Rome; He is said to be brought there 
by the magic spell of her priests, and to be there in the form 
and shape of a wafer. What a fearful blasphemy ! The priest 
pronounces certain words, gives the solemn consecration, and 
then elevates the wafer. Taste it — it is wafer; touch it — it 
is wafer; look at it — it is wafer; smell it — it is wafer; analyze 
it — it is wafer; but the priest affirms, the Council of Trent 
affirms, Romanism affirms, the poor victims of delusion affirm, 
as they bow down before it, "This is our Christ — our God!" 
Here is the climax of this superstition — it exhibits for the 
person of Christ a morsel of bread: Is that morsel of bread 
the Christ of the Bible? Is that system which declares it to 
be so, Christianity? 

FOURTHLY: Christianity is in direct opposition to Ro- 
manism as to the mode of a sinner's justification before God. 

What say the Scriptures? "By deeds of law shall no flesh 
living be justified before God" (Rom. 3:20). "Therefore 
we conclude that a man is justified by faith, without deeds 
of law" (3:28). "Even David describes the blessedness of 



108 The Fundamentals 

the man to whom God imputes righteousness without works" 
(Rom. 4:6). Israel, "being ignorant of the righteousness of 
God, and seeking to establish their own righteousness, have 
not submitted themselves to the righteousness of God. For 
Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one 
who believes," or has faith ( 10 : 3, 4) . 

"God was in Christ, . . . not imputing their tres- 
passes unto them" (2 Cor. 5:19). "God has made Him to be 
sin for us, who knew no sin ; that we might be made the right- 
eousness of God in Him" (5 : 21). "Therefore, being justified 
by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus 
Christ" (Rom. 5:1). The doctrine thus taught by Christianity 
is that all men are sinners; that without justification there is 
no hope for any sinner; that we are justified by the imputation 
of Christ's righteousness alone; and that His righteousness 
is received through faith. 

Now, what says Romanism? It says that the righteousness 
by which men are justified is that which the Holy Spirit, 
by the grace of God, through Christ, makes them work out 
for themselves; that it is received by means of "the sacrament 
of baptism . . . without which no one was ever justi- 
fied;" that it is received "in ourselves," when we are renewed 
by the Holy Spirit; that it is a righteousness "imparted," 
"infused," "implanted," and not imputed (Session 6, chapter 
7). Among the declarations of the Council are these: "If 
any one say that justifying faith is nothing else but confidence 
in the Divine mercy which remits sin for Christ's sake; or, 
that this confidence alone is that whereby we are justified; let 
him be anathema" (Session 6, canon 12). "If any one say 
that . . . good works are merely the fruits and signs of 
justification obtained, but not a cause of the increase thereof; 
let him be anathema" (canon 24). "If any one say . 
that he who is justified by good works, which are done by 
him through the grace of God and the merit of Jesus Christ, 
whose living member he is, does not truly deserve increase 



Is Romanism Christianity? 109 

of grace, eternai life," etc. . . . "let him be anathema" 
(canon 32). Thus Romanism anathematizes the preaching of 
true Christianity! 

I will mention but one more proof that Romanism is not 
Christianity, though there are many others which might be 
given. 

FIFTHLY: Christianity says "there is one Mediator be- 
tween God and men, the man Christ lesus" (1 Tim. 2:5), 
who is at the right hand of the Father (Eph. 1:20), where 
He "ever lives to make intercession" for us (Heb. 7:25). 
Christianity says that there is but one Mediator; that we can- 
not draw near to God except through Jesus. 

What says Romanism? I quote from "a book of devo- 
tion for every day in the month of May," published by Papal 
authority. "Great is the need you have of Mary in order to 
be saved! Are you innocent? Still your innocence is, how- 
ever, under great danger. How many, more innocent than 
you, have fallen into sin, and been damned? Are you penti- 
tent? Still your perseverance is very uncertain. Are you 
sinners ? Oh, what need you have of Mary to convert you I 
Ah, if there were no Mary, perhaps you would be lost 1 How- 
ever, by the devotion of this month, you may obtain her 
patronage, and your own salvation. Is it possible that a mother 
so tender can help hearing a Son so devout? For a rosary, 
for a fast, she has sometimes conferred signal graces upon 
the greatest of sinners. Think, then, what she will do for you 
for a whole month dedicated to her service!" 

Here you see that Maty is everything; that Jesus Christ 
is nothing. Romanism teaches also that it is right to ask the 
intercession of all departed saints (Session 25). How dread- 
ful is it that sinners are thus kept back from Jesus, and are 
prevented from reaching God through Him. 

Popery is emphatically anti-Christian: it is the adversary 
of Christ in all the offices which He sustains. It is the enemy 
of His prophetic office; for it chains up that Bible which He 



110 The Fundamentals 

inspired. It is the enemy of His priestly office; for, by the 
mass it denies the efficacy of that sacrifice which He offered 
once for all on Calvary. It is the enemy of His kingly office ; 
for it tears the crown from His head to set it on that of the 
Pope. 

Can that be truly called Christianity, then, which is the 
reverse of it? Can that be fitly treated as Christianity which 
hates it, denounces it, and tries to destroy it? Can that be 
Christianity which forbids liberty of conscience, and the right 
of private judgment? Which commands the Bible to be 
burned? Which teaches the worship of saints and angels? 
Which makes the Virgin Mary command God? Which calls 
her the Mother of God, and the Queen of Heaven? Which 
sets aside the mediation of Christ, and puts others in His 
place? Which makes salvation depend on confession to man, 
and this is a confessional so filthy that Satan himself might 
well be ashamed of it? Can that be Christianity which con- 
demns the way of salvation through faith, as a damnable 
heresy? Can that be Christianity which, by the bulls of its 
Popes, and decrees of its councils, requires both princes and 
people to persecute Christians? Which actually swears its 
bishops and archbishops to persecute them with all their might ? 
Can that be Christianity which has set up, and still maintains, 
the Inquisition? That which has been so cruel, so blood- 
thirsty, that the number slain by it of the servants of Christ, 
in about 1,200 years, is estimated at fifty millions, giving an 
average of 40,000 a year for that long period ? No, it cannot 
be! With a voice of thunder, let Protestants answer, "No!" 

To aid such a system is to fight against God. He demands 
that we "resist the devil" (James 4:7), and have no fellowship 
with "works of darkness" (Eph. 5:11). "No peace with 
Rome," must be on our lips, and be in our lives. "No peace 
with Rome," whether wearing her scarlet undisguised, or using 
the cloak of a Protestant name. 



Is Romanism Christianity? Ill 

The voice from heaven (Rev. 18 : 4) : "Come out of her, 
My people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye 
receive not of her plagues," is proof that there may be true 
Christians in the Roman body ; but it is proof also that even 
while in it, they are not of it; and that they will strive to 
escape from it, so as not to share in its sins. 

We are informed by God that this system is the work of 
Satan; that his ministers are "transformed as the ministers 
of righteousness, whose end shall be according to their works" 
(2 Cor. 11:15); that it is he who turns men away "from 
the simplicity which is in Christ" (11:3) ; that it is he who 
is the author of that "mystery of iniquity" which was at work 
even while the Apostles were still living, and which was to 
be further revealed, and to remain, till it should be consumed 
by Christ, and "destroyed by the brightness of His coming;" 
a system which is "according to the working of Satan, with 
all power, and signs, and lying wonders, and with all de- 
ceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because 
they received not the love of the truth that they might be 
saved" (2 Thess. 2:7-10). 

May those who love God, and yet have some connection 
with this system, listen to the command, "Come out of her, 
My people." May we in no degree partake of her sins : may 
we renounce, with a holy loathing, all her symbols ; throw off, 
with righteous indignation, all allegiance to her corruptions. 
May we have nothing of Romanism in our doctrines, but 
contend earnestly for the pure faith of the Gospel of Jesus. 
May we have nothing of Romanism in our discipline. May 
we be subject, in all matters of religious faith and practice, 
to the Word of God, and to that alone. May we have nothing 
of Romanism in our services, in our buildings, in our forms, 
in our attire. Because Israel burned incense to the brazen 
serpent which Moses had made, Hezekiah broke it in pieces. 
(2 Kings 18:4.) For the like reason, let us cease to use, on 



112 The Fundamentals 

person or building, that form of the cross which the Romanist 
treats with superstitious regard. "Come out of her." 

Ye who seek salvation, go to Jesus. Him has God exalted 
to be a Prince and a Saviour. He is able to save to the utter- 
most those who come to God by Him. The Father is ready 
with out-stretched arms to clasp the penitent prodigal in H's 
embrace. The Son is ready to give a free, full, complete for- 
giveness to every redeemed sinner, and to justify all who 
come unto God by Him. The Holy Spirit is ready to sanc- 
tify, renew, instruct, and help all who call Upon Him. The 
assembly of saved sinners on earth is ready to welcome you to 
partake of its fellowship and of its joys. Angels are ready 
with harps attuned, and fingers upon the chords, to give you 
a triumphant welcome, and to rejoice over you with joy. 
Come just as you are; come at once. "Him that cometh to 
Me," says Christ, "I will in no wise cast out" (John 6:37). 



CHAPTER VII 

ROME, THE ANTAGONIST OF THE NATION 

BY REV. J. M. FOSTER, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 

The Roman Catholic Church, both in Scriptures and in 
Christian history, figures as a politico-ecclesiastical system, 
the essential and deadly foe of civil and religious liberty, the 
hoary-headed antagonist of both Church and State. John 
Milton said: "Popery is a double thing to deal with, and 
claims a two-fold power, ecclesiastical and political, both 
usurped, and one supporting the other." Let us consider a 
few undeniable facts. 

I. ROME IS THE NATION'S ANTAGONIST BE- 
CAUSE IT IS A CORRUPT AND CORRUPTING SYS- 
TEM OF FALSEHOOD AND IDOLATRY THAT POL- 
LUTES OUR LAND. 

Cardinal Manning said: "The Catholic Church is either 
the masterpiece of Satan or the kingdom of the Son of God" 
("Lectures on the Four-fold Sovereignty of God," London, 
1871, page 171). Unquestionably, it is not the latter. Car- 
dinal Newman declared : "Either the Church of Rome is the 
house of God or the house of Satan; there is no middle 
ground between them" (Essays 11, page 116). We sol- 
emnly affirm that she is not the former. The Church of Rome 
is Satan's counterfeit of the true Church of Christ. The 
heathen sacrificed to devils, not to God. As Israel took their 
idols from the nations about them, Rome Papal took her 
idolatry from Rome Pagan. When the "barbarian hordes" 
from the North over-ran the Roman Empire and dismem- 
bered it, the Bishop of Rome sent missionaries among them, 
proposing a union of Christianity and paganism. The pagan 

113 



114 The Fundamentals 

temples and priests and rites were incorporated with the Chris- 
tian Church, and Rome became "baptized heathenism." "They 
feared the Lord and served graven images." The Bishop of 
Rome naturally had great influence among them. At his sugges- 
tion the lost unity of the Western Empire was restored in recog- 
nizing him as the official ecclesiastical head. The Greek Em- 
peror at Constantinople, Phocas, desired to strengthen his 
authority in the west and invoked the aid of the Roman 
bishop. Boniface III saw his opportunity and made a deal. 
If the Byzantium Emperor would acknowledge him as uni- 
versal bishop, he would accede. Phocas recognized Boniface 
III in 606 A. D. The pagans worshipped the Caesars. 
Roman Catholics pay Divine honors to the pope. They 
ascribe to him the names, titles, attributes, words and works 
of God. The name of God and His works have been as- 
cribed to the pope by their theologians, canonists, councils and 
the popes themselves. By the authority of canon law the 
pontiff is styled the Almighty's vicegerent. This is treason. 
The second commandment forbids worshipping of God by 
images, and yet Rome Papal has introduced the image worship 
of Pagan Rome, only changing the names. The Virgin Mary 
is substituted for Venus. The image of Christ takes the 
place of Jupiter. The idols of the pagan temples were not 
so numerous as the idols of the Romish cathedrals today. 
Pope Pius IV called the Council of Trent, which issued its 
creed in 1564. This creed of Pius IV, together with the 
decree of the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary, pro- 
mulgated in 1854, and that of the pope's infallibility, issued 
in 1870, mark the doctrinal status of Rome today. Let us 
note a few facts in regard to this. 

1. Rome restricts the use of the Bible. The fourth rule 
of the congregation of the "Index of Prohibited Books", ap- 
proved by Pius IV and still in force, runs as follows : "Since 
it is manifest by experience that if the Holy Bible in the 
vulgar tongue be suffered to be read everywhere without dis- 



Rome, the Antagonist of the Nation 115 

tinction, more evil than good arises, let -the judgment of the 
bishop or inquisitor be abided by in this respect, so that, 
after consulting with the parish priest or the confessor, they 
may grant permission to read translations of the Scriptures, 
made by Catholic writers, to those whom they understand to 
be able to receive no harm, but an increase of faith and piety 
from such reading (which faculty let them have in writing). 
But whosoever shall presume to read these Bibles, or have 
them in possession without such faculty, shall not be capable 
of receiving absolution of their sins, unless they have first 
given up their Bibles to the ordinary." This prohibition has 
been followed up by later declarations. Pope Leo XII, in an 
Encyclical dated May 3, 1824, addressed the Latin bishops 
thus: "We also, venerable brothers, in conformity with our 
apostolic duty, exhort you to turn away your flocks from 
these poisonous pastures [i. e., vernacular Bibles]. Reprove, 
entreat, be instant in season and out of season, that the faith- 
ful committed to you (adhering strictly to the rules of the 
'Congregation of the Index') be persuaded that if the Sacred 
Scriptures be everywhere indiscriminately published, more 
evil than advantage will arise thence, because of the rashness 
of men." And the way of the laity to the reading of the Holy 
Scriptures is further blocked by the second article in the creed 
of Pius IV: "I do admit the Holy Scriptures in the same 
sense that Holy Mother Church hath held and doth hold, 
whose business it is to judge the true sense and interpretation 
of them. Nor will I ever receive or interpret them except 
according to the unanimous consent of the Fathers." As the 
"Holy Mother Church" publishes no commentaries on the 
Holy Scriptures, nor "authorized interpretation" of Holy 
Writ; and as "the unanimous consent of the Fathers" is im- 
possible, they having commented freely, each according to 
his ability, the way of the laity to the Word of God is closed. 
The difference between Protestantism and Romanism is, the 
Bible is an open book to the one and a sealed book to the 



116 The Fundamentals 

Other. The Reformed Churches have translated the whole 
Bible into 517 languages and dialects — all the great trunk 
languages spoken by three-fourths of the world's inhabitants 
—and published 300,000,000 copies. The Roman Church 
keeps the Bible locked up in the Latin tongue. It is true the 
Douay Bible was published, the New Testament in 1582 at 
Rheims, and the Old Testament at Douay in 1609. This is 
Rome's English Bible. But the people are forbidden to read 
it. A distinguished French Romanist, Henri Lasserre, struck 
with the fact that the children of the church knew "the Divine 
Book only in fragments, without logical or chronological or- 
der," brought out a translation of the four Gospels, for which 
he obtained the sanction of the Archbishop of Paris and of the 
Pope. The result was an immediate sale of 100,000 copies, 
so eager were the French Romanists for this novel work. But 
the Index shortly interfered. The Pope's express sanction 
was withdrawn, the printing and the sale peremptorily stopped, 
under the pretext that some passages were translated inaccu- 
rately. The fragments in Latin were preferred as safer 
than the whole in a language everyone could understand. 
Rome has made only two translations, and those not spon- 
taneously, but because the inquirers insisted upon their pos- 
session. These two are for Uganda and for Japan. The 
large number of Protestants compelled the Roman mission- 
aries to accede to the demands of their own inquirers and con- 
verts that they should possess the wonderful Book which 
their fellow-countrymen were reading. 

2. Rome accepts the Apocrypha of the Old Testament. 
The Apocrypha came this way. The larger part of the Jews 
never returned from the Babylonian captivity, but were dis- 
persed in many countries. They had the Old Testament 
Hebrew Scriptures. They also had other writings, produced 
after Malachi, but not of equal authority. About B. C. 280, 
Ptolomy, the King of Egypt, invited Hebrew rabbi to come to 
Egypt and translate the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek. The 



Rome, the Antagonist of the Nation 117 

other Jewish writings were translated also, and used by the 
Alexandrian Jews of the dispersion, although they did not 
hold them as part of the Old Testament. In course of time 
the Latin language superseded the Greek in the West, and 
in their ignorance of Hebrew, Latin translations were made, 
not from the original Hebrew, but from the Greek version, 
and the Apociypha was translated with it. Most of the Chris- 
tian fathers had no knowledge of Hebrew, and read the Scrip- 
tures in Greek and Latin. They distinguished the Bible from 
the Apocryphal writings. So did Jerome, in his Latin Vul- 
gate, 404 A. D., translated from Hebrew and Chaldee. So 
did Philo and Melito. A. D. 160. and the Jewish Talmud of 
the fifth century, and the great Roman Cardinal Cajetan 
(1518) and the learned Roman Catholic Archbishop Ximenes, 
to whom we owe the famous Complutensian Polyglot (1517), 
and Josephus (who Hved about the time of Christ). Augus- 
tine differed from Jerome as to the authority of the Apoc- 
rypha, but Augustine did not know Hebrew and his testimony 
is valueless. But not one of the thirty bishops in the Council 
of Trent could read Hebrew, and only a few knew the Greek 
And yet that utterly incompetent Council decreed the Apoc- 
rypha to be a part of God's Holy Word, and to be accepted 
under pain of anathema. 

3. Rome accepts tradition as of equal authority with the 
Scriptures. The Council of Trent (Session IV) : "Seeing 
clearly that this (saving) truth and (moral) discipline are 
contained in the written books and the written traditions re- 
ceived by the Apostles from the mouth of Christ Himself or 
from the Apostles themselves, the Holy Ghost dictating, have 
come down even unto us, transmitted, as it were, from hand 
to hand;" and again: "Every sort of doctrine which is to be 
delivered to the faithful is contained in the Word of God, 
which is divided into Scripture and tradition." But such 
stupendous assertions require clear evidence. Where is "tra- 
dition" found? Has Rome recorded and registered it? 



118 The Fundamentals 

Where is the digest and proof of it for the faithful to exam- 
ine? How is it tested? How is it shown to be necessary? 
Abbe Migne made a compilation of the decrees of councils 
and writings of the ancients in 220 thick volumes, and called 
it "The Catholic Tradition". To this, many other works 
must be added. Are these mountains of chaff to be dug 
through before Christ is found? This is Satan's way of lies. 

4. Rome has seven sacraments. Here is the decree of the 
Council of Trent: "If anyone saith the sacraments of the 
new law were not all instituted by Jesus Christ our Lord, or 
that they are more or less than seven, to-wit: baptism, con- 
firmation, the Eucharist, penance, extreme unction, orders, 
and matrimony; or even that any one of these seven is not 
truly and properly a sacrament; let him be anathema" (Ses- 
sion VII; canon 1). The definition of a sacrament given by 
the Council was ; "A visible sign of invisible grace, instituted 
for our sanctification." But the Scriptures teach that "A 
sacrament is an holy ordinance instituted by Christ, wherein 
by sensible signs, Christ and the benefits of the new covenant 
are represented, sealed and applied to believers." According 
to this there are only two sacraments of the New Testament: 
baptism and the Lord's Supper. The other five, penance, 
confirmation, extreme unction, orders, and matrimony, are not 
sacraments. Here the Church of Rome usurps the preroga- 
tives of the Lord Jesus Christ, the sole and only Head of 
His body the Church. 

5. Rome teaches transubstantiation. The Council of 
Trent (Session XII, chapter 4) : "By the consecration of 
the bread and wine a conversion is made of the whole sub- 
stance of the bread into the substance of the body of Christ 
our Lord, and of the whole substance of the wine into the 
substance of His blood, which conversion is by the Holy Cath- 
olic Church suitably and properly called transubstantiation." 
To this add Article V of the creed of Pius IV : "In the most 
holy sacrament of the Eucharist there are truly, really and 



Rome, the Antagonist of the Nation 119 

substantially the body and blood, together with the soul and 
divinity, of our Lord Jesus Christ." This doctrine, as the 
English Archbishop recently described it, "depends upon the 
acceptance of a metaphysical definition expressed in terms of 
mediaeval philosophy." The philosophy is that of Aristotle, 
who attempts to draw a distinction between "substance" and 
"accidents" — substance being the inner reality in which the 
qualities or accidents, the taste, smell, form, color, etc., inhere. 
But this contradicts the testimony of our senses. It is un- 
reasonable and entirely unscriptural. 

6. Rome sacrifices the mass. By sacrifice they mean "an 
act of external worship in which God is honored as the prin- 
ciple and end of man and all things, by the oblation of a 
visible creature, by submitting it to an appropriate transfor- 
mation by a duly qualified minister" (Cath. Die, page 813). 
This is its comment upon the Eucharistic sacrifices : "All that 
is included in the idea of sacrifice is found in the Eucharist. 
There is the oblation of a sensible thing, viz., of the body 
and blood of Christ under the appearance of bread and wine." 
"There is the mystical destruction of Christ the victim, for 
Christ presents Himself on the altar as in a state of death, 
through the mystical separation between His body and blood." 
"In this sacrifice of thanksgiving we offer God the most ex- 
cellent gift He has bestowed upon us, viz., the 'Son in whom 
He is well pleased.' " Is not this awful presumption ? Their 
Eucharistic sacrifice they hold to be "one with that of the 
cross; on the cross and altar we have the same victim and 
the same priest." Pope Pius V said: "Protestants have no 
sacrifice because the Reformation abolished the mass." But 
the old answer of Bishop Jewel is as true as ever: "Indeed the 
mass is abolished through the gracious working of God. . . . 
They did tell us that in their mass they were able to offer 
Christ, the Son of God, unto God His Father for our sins. Oh, 
blasphemous speech, and most injurious to the glorious work 
of our redemption ! Such kind of sacrifice we have not. Christ 



120 The Fundamentals 

Himself is our High Priest ... by whom we are sanctified, 
even by the offering of Christ once made, who took away our 
sins and fastened them upon the cross. . . . This is our sacri- 
fice, this is our propitiation and sacrifice for the whole world. 
How, then, saith Pope Pius, we have no sacrifice ?" 

7. Rome denies the cup to the laity. The Council of 
Trent pronounces two anathemas as to this. One will suffice. 
"If anyone saith that the Holy Catholic Church was not in- 
duced by just cause and reasons to communicate under the 
species of bread only, laymen, and also clerics, when not conse- 
crating, let him be anathema" (Session XXI; canon 1, 20). 
This is unscriptural. Our Lord instituted the feast in the use 
of both bread and wine. Down to the fifteenth century both 
elements were used. Denying the cup to the laity was the cul- 
mination of many previous errors, such as confounding the 
sign and the thing signified, the propitiating sacrifice of the 
mass, the priesthood of ministers and the stupendous miracle 
of converting bread and wine into the real flesh and blood of 
Christ. 

8. Rome traffics in masses. The priests claim to remove 
souls from purgatory for a certain number of masses, each hav- 
ing a certain price. Not long ago Queen Christina of Spain left 
money for 5,000 masses to be said for herself and 5,000 for her 
husband. As no priest could offer the mass more than once a 
day, they had to be let out to country priests. More recently, 
the Abbe Brugidon endeavored to raise money toward building 
a church in Rome by receiving payment for masses to be said 
when the church was completed. There is much doubt as to 
whether the church will ever be built, but 260,000 masses have 
been already paid for. A number beyond the power of the Abbe 
ever to accomplish. Such stupendous frauds will shock the 
moral sense of the Christian world and awaken the Church to 
a recognition of the mystery of iniquity in the Church of 
Rome. 



Rome, the Antagonist of the Nation 121 

II. ROME IS THE NATION'S ANTAGONIST BE- 
CAUSE IT IS A POLITICAL SYSTEM OF FOREIGN 
DESPOTISM. 

Rome Pagan persecuted the Christians. Rome Pagan be- 
came Rome Christian under Constantine and ceased perse- 
cuting. Rome nominally Christian became Rome Papal and 
persecuted more severely than before. The pope controlled 
the kingdoms of Europe for twelve centuries. How did he 
gain this power? After the pope became universal bishop he 
longed to be free from the Byzantine yoke and 'wield civil 
power himself. His opportunity came at last to realize his 
ambition. Here it is. Clovis the Great entered Gaul and 
destroyed the Roman army in the battle of Soissons in 486. 
He then established the French monarchy and became the first 
of the dynasty of Merovingian kings. The Merovingian dy- 
nasty continued two hundred and fifty years, when it was 
superseded by the Carlovingian dynasty. The change came 
thus: Childeric III was the last of the Merovingian kings, a 
weak, incapable prince. Charles Martel was "the Mayor of 
the Palace," which placed him next to, but not on, the throne. 
The Saracens invaded France and threatened European civili- 
zation. Charles Martel conquered them in a seven days' battle 
between Tours and Poitiers in 732, and saved Europe from 
the scourge of Mohammedanism. The government of France 
was henceforth practically in his hands. His son and suc- 
cessor, Pepin, wished to remove Childeric III and establish 
himself on the throne of France, but he must have a legal 
permit. He appealed to the pope at Rome for such authority. 
The pope's opportunity had come. He offered to do as Pepin 
desired, providing Pepin would free the Holy See from the 
domination of Byzantium. So Pepin led his army across the 
Alps and conquered the provinces, entered Rome, made 
Stephen III a free Prince. The pope became the king of kings 
in 755. He girded on two swords, one on each side, emblems of 



122 The Fundamentals 

temporal and spiritual power. And the pope crowned Pepin 
King of France. Now, the pope desired to revive the old 
Roman Empire. In 800 Charlemagne, the son and successor 
of Pepin, was invited to Rome and crowned by Pope Leo III 
as "Emperor of the Romans." In return for this Charlemagne 
decreed that one-tenth of all incomes must be given to the 
church on the severest pains of forfeiture. But the pope must 
have grounds for such assumptions of power. And so the 
"false decretals" of Isadore, which are now universally con- 
sidered to have been bold and unblushing forgeries, were pro- 
mulgated between 847 and 853. And about 858 the "Donation 
of Constantine," which is now acknowledged by Romanists to 
be spurious, was made to do service. These were requisitioned 
by Pope Nicholas I. The system grew as Innocent III placed 
the iron crown upon the head of Otho I in 962, as the "King 
of the Holy Roman Empire of the Germans"; as Hildebrand 
enforced celibacy upon his English clergy in 1073; as Adrian 
IV granted Ireland to King Henry II in 1156; and as Boniface 
VIII issued his famous Bull, Unum Sanctum, in 1303, which 
was quoted by Pope Pius IX in his Encyclical of 1864, and is 
good canon law today. Here are its contents : "1. It is neces- 
sary to salvation that every man should submit to the pope. 
2. This is a necessary consequence of the dogma of papal 
supremacy. 3. It condemns the assertion by the state of any 
power over church property. 4. The temporal power of Chris- 
tian princes does not exempt them from obedience to the head 
of the church. 5. The material sword is drawn for the church, 
the spiritual by the church. 6. The material sword must co- 
operate with the spiritual and assist it. 7. The secular power 
should be guided by the spiritual as the higher. 8. The 
spiritual has the pre-eminence over the material. 9. The 
temporal power is subordinate to the ecclesiastical as to the 
higher. 10. The temporal power, if it is not good, is judged 
by the spiritual. 11. To the ecclesiastical authority [that is, 
to the pope and his hierarchy] the words of the prophet Jere- 



Rome, the Antagonist of the Nation 123 

miah apply : 'Lo, I have set thee this day over the nations and 
over the kingdoms, to root up and pull down and to waste and 
to destroy ; and to build and to plant.' 12. When the temporal 
power goes astray it is judged by the spiritual. 13. For ob- 
taining eternal happiness, each one is required to submit to 
the pope. 14. The supremacy of the pope even in temporal 
things is to be enforced. 15. The pope recognizes human 
authorities in their proper place, till they lift their will against 
God." 

The Holy Roman Empire reached its climax in 1164 when 
Hadrian IV trod on the neck of Frederick of Barbarossa, and 
went out of commission in 1806, when Napoleon Bonaparte 
compelled Joseph H to abdicate. When Victor Immanuel H 
entered Rome in 1870 and made the Quirinal the capital of 
United Italy, the pope called himself "the Prisoner of the 
Vatican" and issued one of the most shocking excommunica- 
tions against the conqueror: "By the authority of the Al- 
mighty God, the Father, Son and Holy Ghost; and of the 
holy canons and of the undefiled Virgin Mary, mother and 
nurse of our Saviour, and of the celestial virtues, angels, arch- 
angels, thrones, dominions, powers, cherubim and seraphim; 
and of all the holy patriarchs and prophets, and of the apostles 
and evangelists, and of the holy innocents, who, in the sight 
of the Holy Lamb, are found worthy to sing the new song ; and 
of the holy martyrs and holy confessors, and of the holy vir- 
gins and of the saints, together with all the holy and elect of 
God ; we excommunicate and anathematize him, and from the 
threshold of the holy church of God Almighty we sequester 
him, that he may be tormented in eternal excruciating suffer- 
ings, together with Dathan and Abiram and those who say to 
the Lord God, 'Depart from us, we desire none of Thy ways !' 
And as fire is quenched by water, so let the light of him be put 
out forever more. May Father, Son and Holy Ghost curse 
him. May he be damned wherever he may be ; whether in the 
house or in the field, whether in the highway or in the byway, 



124 The Fundamentals 

whether in the wood or water, and whether in the church. 
May the Virgin Mary, St. Michael, St. John, St. Peter, St. 
Paul, the choir of the holy virgins, curse him. May he be 
cursed in living and dying, in eating and drinking, in fasting 
and thirsting, in slumbering and sleeping, in watching and 
walking, in standing or sitting, in lying down or walking, and in 
blood-letting. May he be cursed in his brain; may he be 
cursed in all his faculties ; may he be cursed inwardly and out- 
wardly ; may he be cursed in his hair ; may he be cursed in the 
crown of his head ; in his temples, in his forehead and his ears ; 
in his eyebrows, in his cheeks, in his, jaw-bones, in his nostrils; 
in his foreteeth and his grinders ; in his lips and in his throat ; 
in his shoulders and in his wrists ; in his arms, his hands and 
his fingers. May he be damned in his mouth, in his breast, in 
his heart and in all the viscera of his body. May he be damned 
in his veins and in his groin and in his thighs, in his hips ; in 
his knees ; in his legs, feet and toe-nails. May he be cursed in 
all the joints and articulations of his body. From the top of 
his head to the sole of his foot may there be no soundness in 
him. May the Son of the living God, with all the glory of 
His majesty, curse him ; and may heaven with all the powers 
that move therein rise up against him, curse him, and damn 
him ! Amen. So let it be. Amen." 

But while the pope was pouring out the vials of his wrath, 
the Prussian army was sweeping the French at Sedan and 
Napoleon III surrendered and the German Empire became a 
firm union. The pope ex-communicated the German prelates 
who refused to accept the dogma of the pope's infallibility. 
They refused to vacate their parishes and the Ultramontanes 
attempted to force them out. The Germans interfered and the 
iron Chancellor, Bismarck, declared in the Parliament, "We 
are not going to Canossa, either physically or spiritually," and 
on July 4, 1872, the German Reichstag passed a law expelling 
the Jesuits from the Empire. France has later followed in 
separating Church and State and banishing the monastic 



Rome, the Antagonist of the Nation 125 

orders. Spain has followed the same example and Portugal is 
doing likewise. But Great Britain and the United States per- 
sist in flirting with the great whore of the Tiber. The coron- 
ation oath of King George V was modified and "Home Rule" 
is voted to Ireland to please the Vatican. In the United States 
they have 11,000,000 and control 1,500,000 votes of the city 
governments of Boston, New York, Chicago and others and 
have ninety-five per cent of the municipal offices filled by Rome. 
The press of the country is censored by Roman Jesuits. The 
government at Washington went to Canossa when the Presi- 
dent sent Judge Taft to Rome to consult the pope about the 
friars in the Philippines, the only difference being, Henry IV 
went in a coarse sackcloth and barefoot in the snow, standing 
at the gate three days, while Taft went in a swallow-tailed 
coat and white vest and shoes on his feet, and was received at 
once. But he bargained to pay the pope $7,500,000 for claims 
not worth $1,000,000 in the Islands; then $406,000 for dam- 
ages to church property in quelling a rebellion provoked and 
fostered by the friars themselves. The solid Roman vote is 
a menace in our national elections. The Roman hierarchy 
owns $300,000,000 in America. They have a parochial school 
system and clamorously demand a share in the public school 
fund. Their policy is the refinement of duplicity. They join 
the Jews, infidels and skeptics in driving the Bible from our 
public schools, on the ground that the State is only a secular 
corporation and has no right to teach morals and religion. 
Then they turn with hypocritical distress and exclaim: "The 
public schools are godless, their education is dangerous be- 
cause secular and an education without morals and religion is 
incomplete and vicious : we have built and equipped our 
parochial schools that our children may have an education in 
which morals and religion have their proper place and due 
share of attention ; therefore we demand as a matter of fair- 
ness that the public school funds be shared with us to lighten 
this burden which we are forced to carry." But the answer 



126 The Fundamentals 

which the organic people should return is : "This is a Chris- 
tian State; the public school system is its agency for build- 
ing up a Christian citizenship ; morals and religion, so far as 
they are essential for discharging the functions of Christian 
citizenship, shall be taught in our public schools; and the 
school funds shall not be divided." While Cardinal Gibbons 
can have President Taft and his cabinet, the Judges of the 
Supreme Court, Senators and Representatives attending mass 
in the Roman Catholic Cathedral at Washington, the great 
political parties bidding for the solid Roman vote in national 
elections, and our national policy in the Philippines dictated by 
the Vatican, Rome may reasonably expect to capture our pub- 
lic schools through the Philippine educational policy. But our 
blessed Lord is upon the throne and His cause shall prevail. 



PUBLISHERS' NOTICE 

Particular attention is hereby called to the following points; 

1. All English-speaking Protestant pastors, evangelists, missionaries, 
theological professors, theological students, Y. M. C. A. secretaries, 
Y. W. C. A. secretaries, Sunday School superintendents, religious lay 
workers, and editors of religious publications throughout the earth, 
who so desire, are entitled to a free copy of each volume of "The 
Fundamentals." Any person, belonging to one of these classes, who 
has not received the earlier volumes, may obtain them upon applica- 
tion to the undersigned. State plainly which volumes are wanted, and 
state also the line of Christian work engaged in and the denominational 
affiliation. After an order is sent in, allow at least two weeks (and 
more if from a distance) for filling it. 

Z Changes of address should be promptly reported. Write plainly 
both the old and the new addresses in full. 

3. In case any person receives two or more copies of any one vol- 
ume, kindly notify us. These books are too valuable and the demand 
for them too great to permit waste through duplication. However, 
where extra copies have been received, they need not be returned, but 
may be loaned or otherwise placed in circulation. 

4. To meet the demand on the part of the laity each volume is being 
furnished postpaid at a cost of fifteen cents per copy, eight copies for 
one dollar, or one hundred copies for ten dollars. (In Great Britain, 
8d; 4s 2d; and £2 Is Id, respectively.) These prices will be applied 
to the cost of issuing future volumes. 

5. Do not send currency or personal checks. Remit by post office 
money order, or by bank draft on Chicago, New York, or London, 
making the same payable to the Testimony Publishing Company. 

6. Foreign correspondents should be careful to prepay card and 
letter postage in full. Otherwise we are compelled to pay double the 
amount of the deficiency. 

7. Pay no attention to the post card request in the "Foreword" of 
Volume IX. The blank card referred to therein no longer accom- 
panies that volume. 

8. Please bear in mind that we publish nothing except "The Funda- 
mentals," and do not issue any catalogue. 

In conclusion, we would emphasize once more the great importance 
of writing plainly and briefly, and always giving fuU address — street 
(or rural route) number, post office, state, and (if outside of the 
United States) country. 

Much time and delay will be saved by carefully reading and comply- 
ing with the foregoing directions. 

TESTIMONY PUBLISHING COMPANY, 

808 North La Salle Street 

Chicago, 111., U.S. A. 




3 1924 098 504_685_